Gunderson is straightforward in regard to dynamic psychotherapy: appropriate patients need to be able to control their impulses and be introspective, psychologically minded, and motivated to change. Even so, the dropout rate is very high. Many psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and advance practice nurses are not interested in the issues borderline patients struggle with and are not competent to do psychotherapy with them. Those who are competent have their own lives together, are capable of "holding" patients, believe the patient is suffering and can change, are convinced they can help with issues of dependency and anger, and are themselves nothing less than attentive, authoritative, challenging, clear, confident, conscientious, durable, engaged, and responsive. Competence, not gender of the therapist, is the issue. Table 11-5 (p. 254) helps patients choose such a paragon of virtue as a therapist, and Table 12-5 (p. 272) lists the expectable ultimate results of intensive, long-term psychodynamic therapy.