In any case, I thought he had much to say that was important—I still do—and I quoted him extensively in subsequent publications. Briefly, he believes that the presence of mental illness is determined by societal labeling. How does a person become labeled as mentally ill? First of all, symptoms of mental illness are viewed as violations of social norms. Such behavior as rambling or disorganized speech, unprovoked violent outbursts, delusions, attempts at suicide, bizarre facial grimacing, and extreme anxiety are clearly abnormal by most social standards. However, many such gross violations are not noticed, are ignored, or are rationalized as eccentricity. A close look at any neighborhood in any community will reveal large numbers of seriously disturbed persons who have never come to the attention of a psychiatrist. The violation of the social norm in itself, therefore, does not necessarily cause a person to be labeled as mentally ill. The person is labeled, rather, when circumstances bring about public and official recognition of aberrant behavior—for example, when a request is made that the person be committed to a mental hospital. The result? The person is stigmatized and labeled as mentally ill.