Third, it was then left to Spitzer et al. (11) to review the literature, contact such researchers as Wender, Kety, and Rosenthal on the one hand and Gunderson, Sheehy, Stone, Rinsley, and Kernberg on the other, and develop a 22-item set,which they mailed to 4,000 members of APA in January 1977. There were 808 usable responses, and these ultimately resulted in the first formulation of criteria for borderline personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder. So great was the confusion before the work of Spitzer et al. that these authors could write, "Kety, Wender, and Rosenthal have acknowledged that although they are able to agree with each other in categorizing patients as having borderline schizophrenia, they are not confident that they could convey to others the clinical cues to which they are responding" (11). The same authors recalled that at the General Clinical Service of the New York State Psychiatric Institute, where Kernberg was director, "A few of the therapists claimed not to know well any nonborderline, nonschizophrenic patients!"