t2 presents the results of the frequency analyses of panic symptoms for male and female respondents who met criteria for panic disorder or panic attacks. For both diagnostic categories and for both sexes, heart pounding was the most frequently experienced panic symptom. Between 94% and 97% of all respondents with panic disorder or panic attacks reported increased heart pounding during a panic attack. In the panic disorder group, female respondents experienced some symptoms more frequently than male respondents. For instance, a significantly greater proportion of female than male respondents complained of shortness of breath (72% versus 50%; χ2=10.8, df=1, p=0.001), feeling faint (59% versus 45%; χ2=3.7, df=1, p=0.05), and feeling smothered (60% versus 43%; χ2=5.9, df=1, p=0.02). Similarly, in the panic attack group, female respondents were more likely than male respondents to complain of shortness of breath (65% versus 50%; χ2=6.9, df=1, p=0.009), choking or difficulty swallowing (37% versus 25%; χ2=3.8, df=1, p=0.05), and feeling smothered (50% versus 38%; χ2=4.5, df=1, p=0.03). In the panic attack group female respondents were more likely than male respondents to report nausea, but the difference was not significant (40% versus 29%; χ2=3.6, df=1, p=0.06). Male respondents in both diagnostic groups endorsed pain in the stomach more often than female respondents, but the differences did not reach the level of significance (panic disorder group: 60% versus 48%; χ2=2.9, df=1, p=0.09) (panic attack group: 41% versus 40%; χ2<0.1, df=1, p=1.00).
t3 and t4 present the results of the logistic regression models specified for the panic disorder group and the panic attack group (i.e., those with history of panic of panic attacks who did not fulfill the criteria for panic disorder), respectively. These analyses confirmed that similar indicators were significant for predicting gender, including shortness of breath and nausea. Finally, scores from both groups were pooled. Five somatic symptoms entered the logistic model (t5). Three symptoms predicted female gender: shortness of breath (odds ratio=1.9, 95% CI=1.3–2.8), nausea (odds ratio=1.8, 95% CI=1.2–2.8), and feeling smothered (odds ratio=1.5, 95% CI=1.0–2.2). Two symptoms predicted male gender: sweating (odds ratio=0.6, 95% CI=0.4–0.9) and pain in the stomach (odds ratio=0.6, 95% CI=0.4–0.9).