Hoffman and Youngblade point out that one of the major social changes in the United States is the increased employment of women, but especially women with children. In 1940, 8.6% of mothers with children under 18 worked outside the home. By 1996 that percentage had risen to 70%. Obviously the dual demands of employment and parenting affect the father’s role, which in turn affects family structure, functioning, interaction patterns, and child-rearing orientation. However, as Hoffman and Youngblade state in this book, we know amazingly little about how the mother’s employment status affects families and children. The authors researched 465 families with elementary-age children who attended public school in an industrialized city in middle America with low-to-moderate unemployment rates. Their sample consisted of middle-class and working-class families; an estimated 20% of the families were classified as living in poverty. It is important to note that the researchers had a complete data set for 369 of these families.