Both between-group diagnostic differences and within-group individual differences in response to oxytocin help to place the findings of Apter-Levy et al. (4) and Bertsch et al. (6) in context and to clarify the potential limitations of their work. For example, in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), my colleagues and I demonstrated an impact of oxytocin on social cognition symptoms (7), such as the ability to lay down social memories related to the emotion recognition in spoken language. Not only do different diagnostic groups (i.e., ASD, borderline personality disorder) manifest different clinical responses to oxytocin (7, 8), but within-group individual responses vary. For example, in typically developing healthy volunteers (9), empathic accuracy in response to oxytocin appears to relate to the baseline severity of social cognition deficits. Even within a group of patients with borderline personality, we have observed different responses based on the domains studied, the design of the study, and the outcome measures selected. Oxytocin improved stress reactivity to a socially observed mental arithmetic task in patients with borderline personality disorder (10) but actually worsened social decision making in these patients, perhaps by shifting focus away from the self toward the other participant, in subjects who already had a pathological focus on others (8).