OBJECTIVE: This study compared the HIV-risk-related behaviors and attitudes of adolescents with and without a history of sexual abuse who were in intensive psychiatric treatment. METHOD: Adolescent patients (N=208) completed measures of psychological functioning and HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. RESULTS: Among sexually active adolescents in psychiatric treatment (N=116), those with a history of abuse reported significantly less condom self-efficacy (emotional ability to use condoms), less knowledge of HIV, less impulse control, less frequent use and purchase of condoms, and significantly higher rates of sexually transmitted diseases than their peers. Multiple logistic regression indicated that a history of sexual abuse was strongly associated with inconsistent condom use. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual abuse was associated with HIV-risk-related attitudes and behaviors among adolescents in psychiatric treatment. Clinicians should thus view a history of sexual abuse as a marker for sexual behavior that puts adolescents at risk for HIV.