The section on theory contains some important and stimulating essays. Leon Balter discusses three kinds of "unknowability" in psychoanalysis. These are "the patient’s inherently unobservable unconscious mental processes, practicably unobservable, extra-analytic influences on the analytic material, and the practically unanalyzable effects of the analyst’s activities" (p. 125). I found Balter’s chapter exceptionally thought provoking and reread it three times. Arthur Couch focuses on the therapeutic functions of the real relationship in psychoanalysis and includes an extensive review of the literature as well as his own formulations. This essay should not be missed. Linda Mayes presents clinical material from analyses with a child and an adult and other interview material with 4–5-year-old children "to explore individual fantasies of how development and change happens. The central role of internalization and object relations in regulating psychological development is emphasized" (p. 170). Ronnie Solan, an Israeli psychoanalyst, explores what he calls "healthy" narcissistic function, which includes "the narcissistic preservation of self-identities during interaction between self and others" (p. 193).