Bipolar disorders are common, chronic, and recurrent. Functional recovery generally lags behind symptomatic improvement. The effects on occupational functioning are often enduring, with a 40% lower likelihood of being gainfully employed than the general population of those with disabilities. Both transient and enduring cognitive impairments contribute to the gap between education and the significantly lower workplace accomplishments of persons with bipolar disorders. This timely book, edited by two leaders in clinical and laboratory studies of cognition in bipolar disorder, provides practical information to aid clinicians in application of current knowledge of the forms of cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorders. Lucid discussions of the key concepts in cognitive assessments are included in the chapters. For many of the concepts (e.g.,working memory), a key to understanding how they operate is to recognize that they incorporate two or more fundamental tasks. For working memory, this means initial storage of information followed by some type of mental operation on the information.