First, the parties in health care and researchers must become more familiar with the range of outcomes of individual and social salience. Such a shared conceptual framework is difficult to accomplish even across two areas, much less several, including clinical, economic, and ethical outcomes. Second, interventions that use scientific data to inform practice must be developed and tested widely, and their implications for these diverse outcomes must be understood. While it is difficult to assess values, it may not be much more difficult than studying quality of life, which is not easy to measure or analyze. Yet smaller studies may not be able to study either type of outcome owing to precision problems. The field can accomplish more, however, by collaborating on fewer studies and studies that have scope and scale or coordinating meta-analyses. It is not clear, however, if diverse investigator groups can or will engage in such planning or if such consolidation of research resources compromises the discovery process.