Think for a moment of the six major events that occur in normal brain development (dorsal induction, ventral induction, neuronal proliferation, neuronal migration, neural cell assembly organization, and myelinization). Any disruption of these processes can produce maturational dysfunction, which explains why the incidence of all major central nervous system anomalies diagnosed at or after birth is approximately 33%. Add to that the numbing number of known causes of such disruptions (coffee, lack of folic acid, alcohol, smoking, and influenza, to name a few), and the idea of producing children is daunting. We read in this particular chapter that premature infants who weigh less than 5.5 lb are at far greater risk for birth-related defects, infant mortality, and developmental abnormalities of the brain, accounting for 30%–40% of deaths during the first 12 months of life. In addition, low-birth-weight children have significantly higher rates of white matter abnormalities such as perinatal leukoencephalopathies, and cerebral palsy is 30 times greater in infants weighing less than 53 ounces at birth. Low-birth-weight children can also develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia leading to neurological and cognitive impairment.