The point of neural science is not to prove or disprove psychoanalytic hypotheses, although it will, in certain cases, do just that. For example, I think the biology of memory has taught that there are many other types of unconscious processes besides the dynamic unconscious. Similarly, I think the emerging biology of gender—genotypic gender, phenotypic gender, gender identification, and sexual orientation—are bound to teach us a great deal about sexual orientation specifically and about drives in general. Although we probably do not need biology to convince us that Freud’s analysis of the Schreber patient’s case was flawed, I feel fairly confident that in the next two decades biology will tell us quite directly whether the concept of latent homosexuality has any meaning whatsoever and what, if anything, it has to do with paranoia. It may tell us to what degree male homosexuality is due to genes or brain anatomy on one hand or a possessive mother, a weak or hostile father, or other social influences on the other.