A growing number of psychoanalysts are writing about the important bridges to be built between disciplines. The rich fund of information derived from the phenomenology of clinical experience and some of the complex concepts derived therein—such as representation, motivation, internalization, intrapsychic conflict, transference, defense, and dissociation—could enrich cognitive neuroscience and could, in return, lead to enrichment of psychoanalytic theory by neuroscientific research. The caveat about Dr. Kandel’s article is that he stresses the input from neurobiology and underemphasizes the potential information coming from the "high end," thereby encouraging the trend away from psychoanalytic input in psychiatric training programs. This is unfortunate. It is clear to us that the future complete psychiatrist or analyst should be sophisticated about brain function at many different levels, just as the well-educated cognitive scientist should understand the phenomena emerging from psychoanalysis. The model of the interaction of bottom-up and top-down processes could be the conceptual basis for future research. Dr. Kandel’s article should be a wake-up call for neural scientists as well as psychoanalysts.