Many of the authors, even though they are of an older generation of psychoanalysts, are aware of, as Gardner puts it, "the complexity of the ways in which conscious and preconscious observations, insight, and corrective experience interact" (p. 415). This awareness has led to a much more profound understanding of the psychoanalytic process than is often presented in the foolish stereotypes of Freud’s work that are tendentiously attacked in the literature. It also has led to a greater tolerance for differences, although Gardner suggests that this is more characteristic of the French analysts than the American analysts, at least at the time of his interview. He also suggests something that I have advocated for a long time—namely, making the core of the training program tutorial rather than a series of seminars. I have advocated this even for psychiatric residents in order to, as Gardner says, "shape our teaching with fuller regard for the specific needs and strengths of our candidates and our teachers and their individual ways of learning and teaching" (p. 433).