The important study by Southwick and colleagues on the consistency of memory for combat-related traumatic events in veterans of Operation Desert Storm demonstrates that there are changes in memory recall over time. It also shows that an increase in memory is associated with higher scores for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The authors correctly point out that most reports of combat exposure and its positive correlation with PTSD symptoms are based on retrospective data, thereby leaving open the possibility that the relationship is spurious and due to symptom-induced amplification of memories. They note, however, that it is also possible that "material that had been forgotten, denied, suppressed, or repressed at 1 month may have become conscious by 2 years" (p. 176). Thus, people who were more traumatized by initial combat exposure may show acute memory disturbances and be more vulnerable to later PTSD. This is indeed what we found in our prospective study of victims of the Oakland/Berkeley firestorm R401559BCEBDJCG. Dissociative symptoms, including memory disturbance, were associated with severity of exposure and also predicted the development of PTSD at 7-month follow-up. An association between peritraumatic dissociation and subsequent PTSD has been observed by other investigators as well R401559BCEDHCAJ, R401559BCECEADE.