Wittgenstein's interest in Freud increased during World War II, and there is a remarkable parallel between his complaints about proofs in pure mathematics and about the explanations offered in Freud's psychoanalysis. He regarded these as perspicuous representations that help us find our way about rather than as scientific "truths." Both mathematicians and psychoanalysts ignored him. Certainly a number of Wittgenstein's criticisms of Freud, such as his complaints about Freud's bias regarding religion and Freud's unfortunate tendency to overgeneralize, are valid, but one must also understand this in the context of the extreme difference in the personalities of Freud and Wittgenstein. Wittgenstein, like Nietzsche, was a rather isolated type of idiosyncratic "loner"; the writings of both of these thinkers have been criticized as not being philosophical writings at all. Freud, on the other hand, was very much an organization man and fitted in or attempted to fit in with the bourgeois culture of his day. Wittgenstein was a brilliant and tortured thinker who was never really satisfied with anything that he produced, constantly writing, rewriting, and revising his views in an obsessive fashion. Freud also revised his views but at a much more leisurely pace and not in such extreme detail. Wittgenstein's criticisms of Freud represent just one aspect of his general approach in philosophy, which was to attack the fundamental assumptions of not only all the major thinkers in the Western world but of Western civilization itself. This negative approach, which was also reflected in Wittgenstein's interpersonal relations, was embedded in an ambivalence toward paternal authority of all kinds, as is well-known about Wittgenstein (3).