Get Alert
Please Wait... Processing your request... Please Wait.
You must sign in to sign-up for alerts.

Please confirm that your email address is correct, so you can successfully receive this alert.

Special Articles   |    
Changes in depressive symptoms as AIDS develops. The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study
Am J Psychiatry 1996;153:1430-1437.
text A A A
PDF of the full text article.

OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine whether rates of depressive symptoms change from early- to late-stage HIV-1 infection and to determine the predictors of depressive symptoms as AIDS develops. METHOD: The data for this study were from 911 HIV-seropositive men- community volunteers from four U.S. cities-who entered the 10-year Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study without a diagnosis of AIDS and subsequently developed AIDS. The subjects underwent semiannual follow- ups during the study period. The outcome measures-overall depressive symptoms, nonsomatic depressive symptoms, syndromal depression, and severe depression-were assessed over the 5 years before and the 2 years after AIDS diagnosis from responses on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D Scale). RESULTS: Depressive symptoms were stable over time from month 60 to month 18 before AIDS developed. However, beginning 12-18 months before AIDS diagnosis, there was a significant rise in all measures of depression, which reached a plateau within 6 months before AIDS developed. At this plateau, there was a 45% increase in mean CES-D Scale scores above baseline. An elevated CES-D Scale score in the earlier stages of infection, a self-report of AIDS- related symptoms (such as rash and lymphadenopathy), concurrent unemployment, cigarette smoking, and limited social supports were consistent predictors of higher rates of depression as AIDS developed. CONCLUSIONS: There is a dramatic, sustained rise in depressive symptoms as AIDS develops, beginning as early as 18 months before clinical AIDS is diagnosed. Prior depression, HIV-disease-related factors, and psychological stressors contribute to this rise. This robust phenomenon invites further characterization.

Abstract Teaser
Figures in this Article

Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In to Access Full Content
Sign in via Athens (What is this?)
Athens is a service for single sign-on which enables access to all of an institution's subscriptions on- or off-site.
Not a subscriber?

Subscribe Now/Learn More

PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the DSM-5 library, books, journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research, and professional development.

Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).




CME Activity

There is currently no quiz available for this resource. Please click here to go to the CME page to find another.
Submit a Comments
Please read the other comments before you post yours. Contributors must reveal any conflict of interest.
Comments are moderated and will appear on the site at the discertion of APA editorial staff.

* = Required Field
(if multiple authors, separate names by comma)
Example: John Doe

Web of Science® Times Cited: 134

Related Content
Manual of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 7th Edition > Chapter 8.  >
Manual of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 7th Edition > Chapter 8.  >
Manual of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 7th Edition > Chapter 1.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Geriatric Psychiatry, 4th Edition > Chapter 10.  >
Dulcan's Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry > Chapter 32.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
APA Guidelines
PubMed Articles