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Defense mechanisms and adjustment in normal adolescents
Am J Psychiatry 1996;153:826-828.
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This study compared self-perception of defense patterns with objective and independent ratings of general adjustment in normal adolescents. METHOD: Self-perception of defense utilization by 140 high school students was measured by an adolescent version of Bond's Defense Style Questionnaire. The DSM-III-R Global Assessment of Functioning Scale was used by clinicians in determining general adjustment. RESULTS: Defense style and adjustment were significantly related; greater maturity of defense style was associated with better global adjustment, and conversely, greater immaturity of defense style was associated with a lower level of functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents' self-perceived defense patterns have conscious correlates associated with general adjustment. This study extends the validity of the defense mechanism paradigm to the adolescent age group.

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