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Clinical characteristics of Kraepelinian schizophrenia: replication and extension of previous findings
Am J Psychiatry 1996;153:806-811.
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OBJECTIVE: Subtypologies of schizophrenia based on cross-sectional criteria, such as the nomenclature of the DSMs, have not been successful in identifying valid diagnostic subgroups among patients with schizophrenia. A subtypology that uses criteria to classify individuals on the basis of longitudinal deficits in self-care may identify a more valid subgroup of schizophrenic patients. METHOD: This study describes the clinical characteristics of a group of schizophrenic patients identified on the basis of a longitudinal criterion: at least 5 years of continuous and complete dependence on others for obtaining and maintaining the basic necessities of life, including food, clothing, and shelter. RESULTS: Sixty-one "Kraepelinian" schizophrenic inpatients, when compared to 80 non- Kraepelinian schizophrenic inpatients who were similar in years of illness, age, and education, demonstrated more severe negative symptoms and more severe formal thought disorder; yet the severity of their delusions, hallucinations, and bizarre behavior did not differ significantly. None of the Kraepelinian patients and eight non- Kraepelinian patients met DSM-III-R criteria for schizoaffective disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Data from this replication study suggest that Kraepelinian schizophrenic patients, identified on the basis of a longitudinal course characterized by severe dysfunctions in self-care, may represent an alternative, and possibly more valid, method of subtyping schizophrenia.

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