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Deficits in short-term memory in posttraumatic stress disorder
Am J Psychiatry 1993;150:1015-1019.
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the memory function of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to that of matched comparison subjects. METHOD: Vietnam veterans with combat- related PTSD (N = 26) were compared to physically healthy comparison subjects (N = 15) matched for age, race, sex, years of education, handedness, socioeconomic status, and alcohol abuse. Memory and intelligence were assessed with a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Russell revision of the Wechsler Memory Scale, the Selective Reminding Test, and subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). RESULTS: The PTSD patients scored significantly lower than the comparison subjects on the Wechsler Memory Scale logical memory measures for immediate recall (mean = 11.6, SD = 3.3 versus mean = 20.9, SD = 6.6) and delayed recall (mean = 8.0, SD = 3.3 versus mean = 17.8, SD = 6.4). The PTSD patients also scored significantly lower on the total recall, long-term storage, long-term retrieval, and delayed recall measures for the verbal component of the Selective Reminding Test and on the recall, long-term storage, long- term retrieval, and continuous long-term retrieval measures for the visual component of the Selective Reminding Test. There was no significant difference between the PTSD patients and comparison subjects in prorated full-scale IQ as measured by the WAIS-R. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PTSD may have deficits in short-term memory. Counseling and rehabilitation that address these deficits may be of value for PTSD patients.

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