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Separation anxiety and school phobia: a comparison using DSM-III criteria
Am J Psychiatry 1987;144:653-657.
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Abstract

Children who met DSM-III criteria for separation anxiety disorder (N = 48) or a phobic disorder of school (N = 19) were compared with respect to demographic characteristics, symptoms, associated psychiatric disorders, and maternal psychiatric illness. More children with separation anxiety disorder were female, prepubertal, and from families with lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Children with separation anxiety disorder were less likely to exhibit school refusal than children with school phobia. However, they were more likely to meet criteria for an additional DSM-III diagnosis. Finally, their mothers had a rate of affective disorders four times greater than that of mothers of children with school phobia.

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