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Subtypes of depression identified by the KDS-3A: a pilot study
Am J Psychiatry 1979;136:1415-1419.
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To devise a system of classifying depression subtypes at intake, the authors administered the Kupfer Detre Scale (KDS-3A) to depressed outpatients at intake and after one, three, and six months of treatment with tricyclic antidepressants or lithium carbonate. None of the 10 tricyclic responders scored below 8 on the 14-point chronic anxiety scale at intake while 7 of the 12 lithium responders did, suggesting that any patient scoring below 8 is a probable candidate for lithium therapy. Patients scoring 8 or above on the chronic anxiety scale fell into two categories, those who had a low impulisivity score and responded to tricyclic antidepressants and those who had a high impulsivity score, responded to lithium, and had cyclothymic disorder or emotionally unstable character disorder.

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