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Manic-depressive variant syndrome of childhood: a preliminary report
Am J Psychiatry 1979;136:702-706.
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Abstract

The author describes the specific diagnostic entity of manic-depressive variant syndrome of childhood and outlines the five essential diagnostic criteria (affective storms, family history of significant affective dysfunction, hyperactivity, chronically disturbed personal relationships, and absence of psychotic thought disorder) and the five secondary criteria (sleep disturbances, minimal brain dysfunction, abnormal EEG, enuresis, and neuropathology). In the four cases reported, the children, when properly diagnosed, responded well to lithium therapy. The author points out the need for further study of this syndrome. Precautions about the use of lithium in children under age 12 are crucial, as is the need for continuing psychotherapy for parents and child.

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