Leo Africanus (Hasan al-Wazzān, c.1485–1554) was famous for his geography of North Africa. Following reconquest of his native Granada, Spain, by the Catholic Monarchs, his family moved to Fez, Morocco, where he worked 1 year in a maristan, which means “place for the sick” in Persian (1). Another travel writer, the Austrian physician Hieronymus Münzer (c.1437–1508), described the maristan of Granada as a “house for lunatics, built by the Moors” (2). Maristans had spread widely in the 9th and 10th centuries into North Africa and reached Moorish southern Spain (Al-Andalus) in the 14th century. Most were founded by sultans and supported by donations and patient fees, and they were typically supervised by physicians. Many were teaching hospitals. Their clinical units usually were organized by type of disease, and some evolved to care for specific disorders, including mental illnesses. The maristan of Cairo, Egypt (872), was the earliest identified as primarily psychiatric (3, 4).