The authors studied the reactions of patients provided with renal homotransplantations and their families. Usually when the family learned of the imminent death of one of its members, one or more relatives offered to donate a kidney. The family then gave much support to the donor. However, shortly after the transplant the major investments of the family returned to the recipient. Some of the intrapsychic and interpersonal shifts—immediate fantasies and alterations in role structure, feelings, and attitudes—within these families are discussed.