A new type of psychosurgical technique, namely, prefrontal lobectomy, is described. The advantages of this procedure over prefrontal lobotomy are presented.The results of prefrontal lobectomy are reported in 14 patients with 85.7% showing moderate to marked improvement. This series of cases consisted predominantly of chronic schizophrenia, 11 of the cases being classified as dementia præcox. Moderate to marked improvement followed lobectomy in 82.6% of the latter group of patients. In general, the results for this new psychosurgical procedure compare well with the published reports for prefrontal lobotomy.