First. Chronic nephritis is sometimes the cause of mental aberration, which may be called insanity.Second. Long-continued anxiety may cause albumen, hyaline, granular, epithelial and blood casts in the urine, with accompanying œdema in some cases.Third. This kidney affection may be temporary, disappearing when the cause is removed, or, the cause persisting too long, may become chronic renal disease.Fourth. Contrary to the opinion of many observers, disease of the kidneys is quite common among the insane.