At its September 2011 meeting, the Board of Trustees (BOT) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) voted to approve as a Resource Document the report of the Task Force on Treatment of Gender Identity Disorder (GID). Both the diagnosis and treatment of GID are controversial as reflected in the professional literature as well as in popular discourse where they have recently garnered considerable attention. In contrast to the treatment of other DSM diagnoses where emphasis is on changing thoughts, feelings and behaviors, the treatment of GID from adolescence onward often emphasizes modification of the body. Although psychiatric diagnosis and treatment are inextricably linked, they are separate issues and the DSM does not evaluate and compare the benefits and risks of alternative treatments. As the DSM-V workgroups were deliberating, the BOT, therefore, formed a task force to address concerns that go beyond those in the purview of the DSM-V work group addressing GID. The Task Force was charged to perform a critical review of the literature on the treatment of GID at different ages, to assess the quality of evidence pertaining to treatment, and to present a report to the BOT that would include an opinion as to whether or not sufficient credible literature exists for the APA to take the next step and develop treatment recommendations. Separate sections of the report assess the treatment literature in children, adolescents, adults, and individuals of any age with disorders of sex development (DSDs, aka intersex conditions; DSM-IV criterion C excludes individuals with DSDs from the diagnosis of GID. If they meet other criteria, they receive the diagnosis of GID Not Otherwise Specified. The current DSM-5 proposal recommends replacing GID with Gender Dysphoria and designating two subtypes, without and with a DSD.).