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Cognitive Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Medications in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease: Outcomes From CATIE-AD
Cheryl L.P. Vigen, Ph.D.; Wendy J. Mack, Ph.D.; Richard S.E. Keefe, Ph.D.; Mary Sano, Ph.D.; David L. Sultzer, M.D.; T. Scott Stroup, M.D.; Karen S. Dagerman, M.S.; John K. Hsiao, M.D.; Barry D. Lebowitz, Ph.D.; Constantine G. Lyketsos, M.D., M.H.S.; Pierre N. Tariot, M.D.; Ling Zheng, Ph.D.; Lon S. Schneider, M.D.
Am J Psychiatry 2011;168:831-839. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.08121844
View Author and Article Information
From the Department of Preventive Medicine, the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, the Department of Neurology, and the Department of Gerontology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles; the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, N.C.; the Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York; the Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical School, New York; the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore; the Banner Health Center, Phoenix; the Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles; the VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System; and the Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego.

Received Dec. 18, 2008; revisions received Jan. 19, 2010, and Feb. 18, 2011; accepted Feb. 18, 2011.

Dr. Schneider has been a consultant for Pfizer, Eli Lilly, Johnson & Johnson, AstraZeneca, and Bristol-Myers Squibb. Dr. Keefe has received research support from AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly, and NIMH and has served as a consultant, adviser, or speaker for Abbott, Acadia, BiolineRx, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cephalon, Cortex, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Eli Lilly, Johnson & Johnson, Lundbeck, Memory Pharmaceuticals, Merck, Orexigen, Organon, Pfizer, Sanofi/Aventis, Schering-Plough, Wyeth, and Xenoport. Dr. Sano has served as a consultant or adviser for Aventis, Bayer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eisai, Elan, Forest, Genentech, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen, Martek, Medivation, Novartis, Ortho-McNeil, Pfizer, Takeda, United BioSource, and Voyager. Dr. Sultzer has received research funding or lecture honoraria from or served as a consultant to AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly, Forest, and Pfizer. Dr. Lyketsos has received research funding, lecture honoraria, or travel support from or served as a consultant or adviser to Adlyfe, Associated Jewish Federation of Baltimore, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eisai, Eli Lilly, Forest, GlaxoSmithKline, Ortho-McNeil, Monitor, Novartis, NIMH, National Institute on Aging, Pfizer, Supernus, Takeda, and Wyeth. Dr. Tariot has received research support or consulting or educational fees from Abbott, AC Immune, Alzheimer's Association, Arizona Department of Health Services, AstraZeneca, Avid, Baxter Healthcare, Eisai, Elan, Epix, Forest, GlaxoSmithKline, Institute for Mental Health Research, Lundbeck, Memory, Merck, Merz, Mitsubishi Pharma, Myriad, National Institute on Aging, Neurochem, NIMH, Ono, Pfizer, Sanofi-Aventis, Takeda, and Wyeth; he is also a contributor to the patent "Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease." Dr. Stroup has received speaking or consulting fees from Eli Lilly, Janssen, and Lundbeck. The other authors report no financial relationships with commercial interests.

Supported in part by NIMH research contract N01 MH-9001, USC Alzheimer's Disease Research Center NIH P50 AG05142, and the Department of Veterans Affairs. Medications for this study were provided by AstraZeneca, Forest, Janssen, and Eli Lilly.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Schneider, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1510 San Pablo St., HCC 600, Los Angeles, CA 90033; lschneid@usc.edu (e-mail).

Received December 18, 2008; Revised January 19, 2010; Revised February 18, 2011; Accepted February 18, 2011.

Copyright © American Psychiatric Association

Abstract

Objective:  The impact of the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone on cognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease is unclear. The authors assessed the effects of time and treatment on neuropsychological functioning during the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness—Alzheimer's Disease study (CATIE-AD).

Method:  CATIE-AD included 421 outpatients with Alzheimer's disease and psychosis or agitated/aggressive behavior who were randomly assigned to receive masked, flexible-dose olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or placebo. Based on their clinicians' judgment, patients could discontinue the originally assigned medication and receive another randomly assigned medication. Patients were followed for 36 weeks, and cognitive assessments were obtained at baseline and at 12, 24, and 36 weeks. Outcomes were compared for 357 patients for whom data were available for at least one cognitive measure at baseline and one follow-up assessment that took place after they had been on their prescribed medication or placebo for at least 2 weeks.

Results:  Overall, patients showed steady, significant declines over time in most cognitive areas, including in scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; —2.4 points over 36 weeks) and the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (—4.4 points). Cognitive function declined more in patients receiving antipsychotics than in those given placebo on multiple cognitive measures, including the MMSE, the cognitive subscale of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and a cognitive summary score summarizing change on 18 cognitive tests.

Conclusions:  In CATIE-AD, atypical antipsychotics were associated with worsening cognitive function at a magnitude consistent with 1 year's deterioration compared with placebo. Further cognitive impairment is an additional risk of treatment with atypical antipsychotics that should be considered when treating patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Abstract Teaser
Figures in this Article

Psychiatric and behavioral symptoms are common in patients with Alzheimer's disease and contribute substantially to the morbidity of the illness (13). Delusions or hallucinations appear in 30%—50% of patients with Alzheimer's disease, and as many as 70% demonstrate agitated or aggressive behaviors. These symptoms contribute to patient and caregiver distress (4, 5) and can compromise patient safety or promote institutionalization (6, 7).

Medications from several pharmacological classes have been used to treat psychosis and behavioral disturbances in Alzheimer's disease. The majority of randomized controlled trials have examined the efficacy of atypical antipsychotics over 6 to 12 weeks. Some studies included outpatients, but most included patients with advanced Alzheimer's disease residing in long-term care facilities. Several trials have reported modest efficacy on behavioral symptoms with individual atypical antipsychotics compared to placebo (8). However, efficacy is not seen in all trials or for all symptoms, and adverse events can occur, including further cognitive impairment (8).

The effects of antipsychotic medication on cognition have largely been gleaned from studies of patients with schizophrenia. In that patient population, early optimism about atypical antipsychotics improving cognition (9, 10) was not confirmed by studies with designs that included randomized double-blind treatment conditions, acceptable dosing strategies (11), and consideration of practice effects (12).

The impact of atypical antipsychotics on cognition in Alzheimer's disease is less certain. Assessment of cognition in clinical trials has generally not extended beyond the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; 8, 13, 14). In the only two trials that reported results, there was an overall worsening by 0.73 points on the MMSE with atypical antipsychotics compared to placebo over the 10—12 weeks of the trials (8) and a worsening of about 4 points on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale with olanzapine over 26 weeks in a trial of patients without behavioral problems (15).

The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness—Alzheimer's Disease study (CATIE-AD), funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, was designed to compare the effectiveness of antipsychotics and placebo in patients with Alzheimer's disease and psychosis or agitated/aggressive behavior (16), and by design it included measures with which to investigate the cognitive effects of these medications. In contrast to many efficacy trials, CATIE-AD included outpatients in usual-care settings and assessed treatment effectiveness with a variety of outcomes over a 9-month intervention period. Initial CATIE-AD treatment (olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or placebo) was randomized and double-blinded, yet the protocol allowed medication dosage adjustments or switching to a different treatment, based on the clinician's judgment. The primary CATIE-AD outcome measure was the time to discontinuation of the initially assigned medication for any reason (17). This was intended as an overall measure of effectiveness that incorporated the judgments of patients, caregivers, and clinicians, reflecting therapeutic benefits in relation to undesirable effects.

In this article, we report the effects of time and of treatment on neuropsychological measures during the trial.

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CATIE-AD Study Design

The rationale and design of CATIE-AD have been described elsewhere (16, 17). Briefly, the 36-week study period occurred in up to four possible phases for each patient. Phase 1 began at baseline, when 421 patients were randomly assigned, in a double-blind fashion, to receive olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or placebo (randomized allocation ratio, 2:2:2:3). If the phase 1 medication was discontinued, the patient could enter phase 2 or open treatment (phase 4). In phase 2, if the patient had originally been assigned to receive an atypical antipsychotic, he or she was randomly assigned, in a double-blind fashion, to receive one of the other atypical antipsychotics or the antidepressant citalopram (randomization allocation ratio, 3:3:2). If the patient had originally been assigned to receive placebo, he or she would be randomly assigned to receive citalopram or an atypical antipsychotic (randomized allocation ratio, 3:1:1:1). Upon discontinuation of phase 2 medication, the patient could enter phase 3 and be randomly assigned to open-label treatment with an atypical antipsychotic not previously assigned. At any time, the clinician could choose to enter the patient into phase 4, where data collection continued but the physician prescribed medication.

To participate in the trial, patients had to meet DSM-IV criteria for dementia of the Alzheimer's type or the criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease from the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (18); be ambulatory outpatients living at home or in an assisted-living facility; have an MMSE score in the range of 5—26; have had delusions, hallucinations, agitation, or aggression nearly every day over the previous week or intermittently over 4 weeks; have symptom ratings of at least moderate severity on the conceptual disorganization, suspiciousness, or hallucinatory behavior item of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS; 19) or ratings indicating at least weekly occurrence with moderate or greater severity on the delusion, hallucination, agitation, or aberrant motor behavior item of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (20).

Patients were excluded if they were taking antidepressants or anticonvulsants for mood stabilization. Cholinesterase inhibitors were permitted. The study was reviewed and approved, and the informed consent was documented and approved, by the institutional review boards of each of the 42 study sites.

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Present Study

In the present study, we assessed the weekly rate of change and the total change over 36 weeks on several measures of cognitive function. The study included all trial participants who did not report sedation at baseline, for whom data on years of education (a model covariate) were available, and for whom baseline measures and at least one follow-up measure of cognitive function were available. Eight patients reported sedation at the 12-week visit, and their scores for that visit were excluded from these analyses. Changes in cognitive function were assessed for the total group and for subgroups defined by randomized medication.

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Cognitive Assessments

The following instruments were administered at baseline and at 12, 24, and 36 weeks: the MMSE; the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog) (21); three additional ADAS subscales—concentration/distractibility, number cancellation, and executive function (mazes) (22); tests of category instances (semantic fluency and animal category) (23); the finger tapping test, preferred and nonpreferred hand (24); the Trail Making Test, Part A (Trails A; 25); and a measure of working memory deficit determined by the difference in the 10-second-delay and no-delay dot tests of visuospatial working memory (26).

A cognitive summary score was calculated in a two-step process. First, the normalized z scores for each of the component measures (after recoding so that higher scores on each component test indicated higher functioning) were averaged. These averaged scores were then normalized. The z scores were computed using baseline means and standard deviations for each component score among all patients included in these analyses. The components of the summary score included the 11 components of the ADAS-Cog, the three additional ADAS subscales (concentration/distractibility, number cancellation, and executive function), the category instances tests, the mean of the scores for the preferred and the nonpreferred hand on the finger tapping test, the Trails A, and the working memory deficit. If more than four component scores were missing, the cognitive summary was considered missing.

In addition, Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC; 17) scores were collected. The CGIC is a seven-point scale of the clinician's assessment of the patient's change in mental status since study baseline, with a score of 1 indicating "very much improved," a score of 4 indicating no change, and a score of 7 indicating "very much worse." A physician-rated cognitive dysfunction factor of the BPRS (27) consisting of the conceptual disorganization and disorientation items was calculated but was not included as part of the cognitive summary score.

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Statistical Analysis

Mean cognitive scores at baseline were compared by categories of age, gender, years of education, and pooled study site using t tests or ANOVA as appropriate. The seven sites with 18 or more patients were not pooled; the 35 sites with fewer than 18 patients were pooled according to a predetermined algorithm into eight pooled sites (17).

To accommodate longitudinal measures (multiple observations per patient over time) and the inherent within-patient correlations, mixed-effects linear regression models were used. These models assessed the rate of change (slope) in cognition over the trial period for each of the cognitive measures and the cognitive summary score, adjusting for age, gender, education, and pooled study site. Random effects were specified for the intercept and slope (time in study, in weeks).

In the first set of analyses, study treatment was not considered. The dependent variable was the cognitive function score, and the independent variables were the covariates and time (weeks) since baseline. The regression coefficient for the time variable estimated the average weekly rate of change in the cognitive measure.

Further analyses assessed effect modification on weekly rate of change in cognition by baseline level of MMSE score (<19 or ≥19, more severe versus mild impairment), baseline BPRS total score (≤27 or >27, median split on behavior severity), and study site size (<18 patients [pooled sites] or ≥18 patients [stand-alone sites]). Each cognitive measure was modeled as a function of the covariates, time (weeks) since baseline, and an interaction term of time since baseline by baseline MMSE group, BPRS group, or study site size group. The interaction term tested whether the rate of change (slope) in the cognitive score differed by baseline MMSE, BPRS, or study site size.

The second set of mixed-effects analyses assessed the effect of each treatment on the rate of change in cognitive function. Treatment was included, provided that the patient had been receiving the treatment (olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or placebo) for at least 2 weeks before the cognitive assessment. Follow-up cognitive assessments on dates when the patient was in the open-choice phase (phase 4) or had been receiving the study medication for less than 2 weeks were not included in these analyses. Separate models were fitted for each cognitive variable. The independent variables included the covariates, treatment assignment, and time (weeks) since baseline. An additional interaction term of time since baseline by treatment tested whether the rate of cognitive change differed among patients on a specific study medication compared to those on placebo.

The third set of mixed-effects analyses was similar to the second except that all atypical antipsychotics were combined for comparison with placebo. This set included more cognitive testing dates than the second set because a patient on a combination of atypical antipsychotic medications during the 2 weeks before cognitive testing would be included here but excluded from the second set of models. In addition, we used the model estimates of weekly rates of change over the trial to estimate the change in cognitive function over the full 36-week study period by study group. Since the statistical tests are tests of slope over the full study period, whether changes are expressed per week or over 36 weeks makes no difference to the statistical significance.

Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the average CGIC score by treatment group and test for differences from placebo for patients on study medication for at least 2 weeks prior to cognitive testing.

All data were analyzed using SAS for Windows, version 9.1 (SAS Institute, Cary, N.C.). All p values are two-sided.

All 421 patients who received randomized treatment assignments were assessed by at least one of the cognitive measures at baseline. One patient who reported sedation at baseline and 16 patients who did not report years of education were excluded from the analyses. In addition, follow-up cognitive measures were not available for 47 patients, leaving 357; of these, 342 had at least one follow-up cognitive measure at 12 weeks, 320 had at least one follow-up measure at 24 weeks, and 307 had at least one follow-up measure at 36 weeks. The study sample was 46% male, with a mean age of 77.6 years and mean of 12.3 years of education (Table 1); 64% were taking cholinesterase inhibitors.

 
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TABLE 1.

Baseline Demographic, Cognitive, and Functional Characteristics of Patients With Alzheimer's Disease and Psychosis or Agitated/Aggressive Behavior in a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study of Atypical Antipsychotics

Table Footer Note

a The working memory deficit is the difference between the 10-second-delay score and no-delay scores. Working memory deficit scores were considered to be missing in patients with no-delay scores above 4.0.

Table Footer Note

b The cognitive summary is the normalized average of the sign-adjusted, normalized, baseline z scores for each of the 11 components of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale cognitive subscale, as well as the concentration/distractibility, number cancellation, and executive function (mazes) subscales; category instances; the mean of the scores for the preferred and the nonpreferred hand on the finger tapping test; the Trail Making Test, Part A; and the working memory deficit.

Over the 36-week follow-up period, participants significantly declined on several measures of cognitive function (MMSE, ADAS-Cog, ADAS concentration/distractibility, ADAS number cancellation, category instances, both finger tapping tests, Trails A, and the cognitive summary) and on the BPRS cognitive factor (Table 2). The models in Table 2 can be used to predict test score changes for a patient with specified covariate values in this sample. For a man 77.6 years old (the sample mean) with 12.3 years of education (the sample mean) in the study site that pooled all of the sites with five or fewer patients, the model-estimated declines over 36 weeks were as follows: the MMSE score decreased from 15.6 to 13.2, the ADAS-Cog score worsened from 34.2 to 38.6, the cognitive summary decreased from —0.06 to —0.46, and the BPRS cognitive factor score worsened from 4.6 to 5.0. Figure 1, which includes both patients receiving atypical antipsychotics and those receiving placebo, shows that the declines in z scores for these tests over the 36-week study period were linear. It also shows that the normalized change in scores over time was more pronounced for the ADAS-Cog, the MMSE, and the cognitive summary than for the BPRS cognitive factor, which is more behaviorally related. Figure 2 illustrates the changes in raw MMSE, ADAS-Cog, and cognitive summary scores over time for the full study population.

 
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TABLE 2.

Weekly Rates of Change in Cognitive Function in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease and Psychosis or Agitated/Aggressive Behavior in a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study of Atypical Antipsychotics and by Treatment Group

Table Footer Note

a Direction in which a change in score indicates improved function.

Table Footer Note

b Mixed-effects regression model β in time in weeks (i.e., the weekly change in cognitive variables), adjusted for age, gender, education, and pooled study site.

Table Footer Note

c Adjusted for age, gender, education, and pooled study site.

Table Footer Note

d Mean difference from placebo in change per week among patients who had been on the same medication or placebo for at least 2 weeks at time of assessment. The numbers of patients on the same treatment for at least 2 weeks at the 12-week, 24-week, and 36-week assessments, respectively, were as follows: placebo: 48, 27, 25; olanzapine: 58, 41, 42; quetiapine: 64, 55, 44; risperidone: 60, 51, 35.

Table Footer Note

e Mixed-effects regression model β in time in weeks, compared with placebo (i.e., by atypical antipsychotic, the weekly change in cognitive variables in excess of that observed in placebo patients), adjusted for age, gender, education, and pooled study site.

Table Footer Note

f Adjusted for age, gender, education, and pooled study site.

Table Footer Note

g The cognitive summary was the normalized average of the sign-adjusted, normalized, baseline z scores for each of the 11 components of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale cognitive subscale, as well as the concentration/distractibility, number cancellation, and executive function (mazes) subscales; tests of category instances; the mean of the scores for the preferred and the nonpreferred hand on the finger tapping test; the Trail Making Test, Part A; and the working memory deficit.

 
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FIGURE 1.

Average Cognitive Summary Score and z Scores for Three Cognitive Tests, by Study Period, for the Full Study Populationa

a MMSE=Mini-Mental State Examination; ADAS-Cog=cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale. A one-unit change in z scores for MMSE, BPRS cognitive factor, and ADAS-Cog represents a decline of one SD of mean baseline score for the variable, with BPRS cognitive factor and ADAS-Cog z scores being further adjusted so that declines in the z score indicate declines in cognitive function. The cognitive summary score is the normalized average of normalized cognitive scores (Table 2).

 
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FIGURE 2.

Average Scores on Three Cognitive Measures, by Study Period and by Antipsychotic Treatment Versus Placeboa

a MMSE=Mini-Mental State Examination; ADAS-Cog=cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale. Decreases in MMSE and cognitive summary scores and increases in ADAS-Cog score are indicative of cognitive decline.

The rates of change in cognitive function did not significantly differ by baseline MMSE score (<19 or ≥19), BPRS total score (≤27 or >27), or study site size (<18 patients or ≥18 patients) (data not shown).

No significant differences were observed in the rates of change in most cognitive function measures between individual medication groups and placebo (Table 2). However, on the cognition summary measure, patients receiving olanzapine or risperidone (for at least 2 weeks prior to assessment) had significantly greater rates of decline than patients given placebo. Compared with patients given placebo, significantly greater rates of cognitive decline were observed on the MMSE in patients receiving olanzapine, on the BPRS cognitive factor in patients receiving quetiapine, and on the cognitive summary in patients receiving olanzapine and risperidone.

Patients receiving any atypical antipsychotic (for at least 2 weeks prior to assessment) had significantly greater rates of decline in cognitive function as measured by the MMSE, the category instances tests, the cognitive summary, and the BPRS cognitive factor than did patients receiving placebo (Table 3). On all cognitive measures, patients receiving atypical antipsychotics had lower scores than patients given placebo, although not all differences were statistically significant. The association between cognitive decline and atypical antipsychotic compared with placebo did not vary by baseline MMSE or BPRS score or by study site (data not shown), indicating that these variables exerted little or no effect modification.

 
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TABLE 3.

Changes in Cognitive Function Over 36 Weeks Among Patients With Alzheimer's Disease and Psychosis or Agitated/Aggressive Behavior Receiving Olanzapine, Quetiapine, or Risperidone Compared With Placeboa

Table Footer Note

a Only patients who had been receiving an atypical antipsychotic or placebo for 2 weeks at time of assessment were included.

Table Footer Note

b Mixed-effects regression model, adjusted for age, gender, education, and pooled study site. The model change is the predicted change in cognitive function test score from baseline to 36 weeks for patients who had been on an atypical antipsychotic or on placebo for at least 2 weeks at time of assessment, adjusted for age, gender, education, and pooled study site. Confidence intervals are for the predicted change in cognitive function.

Table Footer Note

c Direction in which a change in score indicates improved function.

Table Footer Note

d Significance level for atypical antipsychotic change rate compared with placebo, adjusted for age, gender, education, and pooled study site.

The average CGIC score for patients receiving placebo was 3.13, indicating minimal improvement. The average CGIC scores for patients receiving atypical antipsychotics also indicated minimal improvement (3.11, 2.83, and 2.81 for olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone, respectively), and these changes did not differ significantly from that observed in patients receiving placebo.

In our sample, Alzheimer's disease patients with behavioral disturbances showed a steady decline over 36 weeks in most cognitive areas, regardless of whether they received antipsychotic treatment or placebo. Over the study period, these declines were not only statistically significant but also clinically meaningful. The estimated rate of decline among placebo patients on the ADAS-Cog was similar to that seen in Alzheimer's patients without behavioral disturbances in other trials (15, 28). Moreover, the rates of decline did not vary with initial level of cognitive impairment as indicated by baseline MMSE score. Our method of analysis used all data points from patients for whom data were available from baseline and at least one follow-up assessment. However, during the later assessments, there were fewer test scores mainly because of patients' inability to perform the tests or their dropout from the study, meaning that data cannot be assumed to be missing at random. Therefore, the cognitive decline over time is likely to be greater than documented in our study (29).

We evaluated the effect of treatment with atypical antipsychotics on cognitive function by comparing the weekly change (the slope of the change in cognitive function over time) among patients who had been receiving their current medication (or placebo) for at least 2 weeks at the time of cognitive testing. For most cognitive tests, the rate of cognitive change did not significantly differ by antipsychotic agent. However, when the treatment groups were pooled, patients receiving antipsychotics had greater declines in cognitive function than did patients receiving placebo on all tests except the ADAS executive function subscale. Combining the active treatment groups provided greater statistical power, and many of the tests of cognitive function showed significantly greater rates of decline in patients receiving atypical antipsychotics compared to patients receiving placebo. Over the 36-week trial period, patients receiving any antipsychotic had an average decline 2.46 points greater on the MMSE than placebo patients, a difference both statistically significant (p=0.004) and clinically relevant.

In comparing the study medications to placebo, we limited our analysis to patients who had been taking the same drug for at least 2 weeks at the time of cognitive testing, essentially testing for a short-term effect. Alternatively, analyses could have been based on total exposure or exposure over some longer or lagged period. However, basing analyses on the sum of exposure over the trial would have mixed recent and distant exposures, possibly obscuring the short-term cognitive effect. Using a continuous exposure longer than 2 weeks would have substantially reduced the number of patients available for analysis since many patients switched medications after relatively short exposure periods. Decline in cognitive function may be one reason patients switch medication.

Because we did not measure differences in the rates of cognitive decline over longer exposure periods, we cannot address the question of whether these drugs would accelerate cognitive decline permanently or merely impair cognition during acute administration. It is also possible that this worsening of cognitive function with atypical antipsychotics would attenuate over time. We do not know whether the greater decline in cognitive function in patients receiving these medications was a worsening of Alzheimer's pathology or an independent effect. Sedation would be a possible explanation for decreased cognitive function among patients receiving these drugs, although we excluded data from all test days on which the patient's caregiver reported sedation. It is well known that antipsychotic medications degrade cognition in most nonpsychotic patient groups, such as when used for dyskinesia control in Tourette's syndrome, and have been shown to impair aspects of cognition in schizophrenia.

Although there is strong evidence for a detrimental effect of atypical antipsychotics on cognitive function (8, 15), it is not clear whether this effect is equally strong in the different cognitive domains. The most significant effect that we observed when comparing individual drugs to placebo was in the cognitive summary score. Since this variable combines many of the other tests, it is less subject to random fluctuations, allowing differences between groups to be recognized. If significant effects were not found within a given cognitive domain, however, it may not be due to absence of effect but rather to insensitivity of the test. Patients receiving atypical antipsychotics improved overall clinically, as evidenced by CGIC scores; however, the improvements were not statistically different from those seen in the placebo group.

In addition to testing a variety of cognitive domains, this study had the strength of reflecting prescribing practices for the atypical antipsychotics most commonly used in Alzheimer's disease. The relatively small sample size, however, with patients spread over one placebo and three active medication arms, did not provide the statistical power to evaluate differences between the three drugs. Nevertheless, the differences between the active treatments tended to be smaller than those between active treatment and placebo.

Some early studies and meta-analyses conducted in nondemented patients with schizophrenia indicated that cognitive function may improve more in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics than in those treated with conventional antipsychotics (9). Data from the CATIE schizophrenia trial, however, indicated that improvements in cognition with antipsychotic treatment were small and did not differ between atypical and conventional antipsychotics, leading the authors to conclude that they were likely due to the effects of expectation or practice (30). Similarly, improvements in cognitive function reported (12) for 104 patients with schizophrenia randomly assigned to receive either olanzapine or risperidone were consistent with the improvement due to practice effects seen in 84 healthy volunteers without schizophrenia. The fact that the Alzheimer's patients in the present study did not show cognitive improvement with treatment may be due to their overall declining cognitive function (as seen in the full study population), vulnerability to the deleterious cognitive effects of these medications, and the inability of these patients to benefit from the practice improvement seen in nondemented patients.

Individual trials in Alzheimer's patients generally report null effects of atypical antipsychotics on MMSE score, which often is the only cognitive measure used (8). Meta-analysis of trials comparing olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, haloperidol, and aripiprazole to placebo over 6—26 weeks (8), including 863 patients using olanzapine, quetiapine, or risperidone compared to 314 placebo patients, reported a weighted mean difference of 0.73 (p<0.0001) on the MMSE for drug compared with placebo, with poorer scores in drug group. In our study, the additional decline in MMSE score with risperidone compared to placebo was statistically significant, while the declines with olanzapine and quetiapine were not.

Other trials have assessed cognitive change in Alzheimer's patients using atypical antipsychotics. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 80 patients (13) found greater declines in cognitive function (measured by the Severe Impairment Battery) in those receiving quetiapine than in those receiving placebo. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 268 Alzheimer's patients who did not have significant behavioral problems (15) found greater declines on both the MMSE and the ADAS-Cog in patients receiving olanzapine than in those receiving placebo. Furthermore, the difference in ADAS-Cog scores was significant only in patients with lower baseline MMSE scores. In our study, we did not find differences in cognitive decline or treatment effect when patients were stratified by baseline MMSE score or baseline BPRS score.

In contrast, a retrospective chart review of 58 Alzheimer's patients treated with risperidone, olanzapine, or quetiapine (31) found no decline in MMSE score in any of the drug groups. The patients in that study, however, tended to be younger and to have higher baseline MMSE scores than the patients in CATIE-AD. Moreover, the study required that patients take the medications for 6 months, and thus many patients who experienced negative cognitive effects would likely not have been included.

Our results provide additional broad evidence that, compared with placebo, atypical antipsychotics are associated with greater rates of decline in cognitive function in Alzheimer's patients with psychotic or aggressive behavior and that the magnitude of the additional declines is clinically relevant, reaching at least as great a magnitude as the effect of cholinesterase inhibitors but in the negative direction (28). Furthermore, the results suggest that the declines in cognitive function span a range of cognitive domains, but given our sample size, we were unable to determine precisely the difference in effect by cognitive domain. Although our sample size was not sufficient to determine whether the rates of decline varied by atypical antipsychotic used, the declines were evident for all three medications compared to placebo. Despite the evidence for worsening cognitive function and other adverse events with antipsychotics, improvement in psychotic and aggressive behavior may still warrant use of these agents in individual cases (17, 32). To aid in choosing the best medication for a given patient, the relative adverse effects on cognitive function within this class of medication need to be addressed in further studies that include assessments of attention, psychomotor function, and executive function.

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Lopez  OL;  Becker  JT;  Sweet  RA;  Klunk  W;  Kaufer  DI;  Saxton  J;  Habeych  M;  DeKosky  ST:  Psychiatric symptoms vary with the severity of dementia in probable Alzheimer's disease.  J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2003; 15: 346—353
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Craig  D;  Mirakhur  A;  Hart  DJ;  McIlroy  SP;  Passmore  AP:  A cross sectional study of neuropsychiatric symptoms in 435 patients with Alzheimer's disease.  Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2005; 13: 460—468
[PubMed]
 
Schulz  R;  O'Brien  AT;  Bookwala  J;  Fleissner  K:  Psychiatric and physical morbidity effects of dementia caregiving: prevalence, correlates, and causes.  Gerontologist 1995; 35: 771—791
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Magni  E;  Binetti  G;  Bianchetti  A;  Trabucchi  M:  Risk of mortality and institutionalization in demented patients with delusions.  J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 1996; 9: 123—126
[PubMed]
 
Stern  Y;  Tang  MX;  Albert  MS;  Brandt  J;  Jacobs  DM;  Bell  K;  Marder  K;  Sano  M;  Devanand  D;  Albert  SM;  Bylsma  F;  Tsai  WY:  Predicting time to nursing home care and death in individuals with Alzheimer disease.  JAMA 1997; 227: 806—812
[CrossRef]
 
Schneider  LS;  Dagerman  K;  Insel  PS:  Efficacy and adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics for dementia: meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials.  Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2006; 14: 191—210
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Keefe  RS;  Silva  SG;  Perkins  DO;  Lieberman  JA:  The effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs on neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia: a review and meta-analysis.  Schizophr Bull 1999; 25: 201—222
[PubMed]
 
Woodward  ND;  Purdon  SE;  Meltzer  HY;  Zald  DH:  A meta-analysis of neuropsychological change to clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone in schizophrenia.  Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2005; 8: 457—472
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Harvey  PD;  Keefe  RSE:  Studies of cognitive change in patients with schizophrenia following novel antipsychotic treatment.  Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 176—184
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Goldberg  TE;  Goldman  RS;  Burdick  KE;  Malhotra  AK;  Lencz  T;  Patel  RC;  Woerner  MG;  Schooler  NR;  Kane  JM;  Robinson  DG:  Cognitive improvement after treatment with second-generation antipsychotic medications in first-episode schizophrenia: is it a practice effect? Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64: 1115—1122
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Ballard  C;  Margallo-Lana  M;  Juszczak  E;  Douglas  S;  Swann  A;  Thomas  A;  O'Brien  J;  Everratt  A;  Sadler  S;  Maddison  C;  Lee  L;  Bannister  C;  Elvish  R;  Jacoby  R:  Quetiapine and rivastigmine and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial.  BMJ 2005; 330: 874—877
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Folstein  MF;  Folstein  SE;  McHugh  PR:  "Mini-Mental State": a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician.  J Psychiatr Res 1975; 12: 189—198
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Kennedy  J;  Deberdt  W;  Siegal  A;  Micca  J;  Degenhardt  E;  Ahl  J;  Meyers  A;  Kaiser  C;  Baker  RW:  Olanzapine does not enhance cognition in non-agitated and non-psychotic patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia.  Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2005; 20: 1020—1027
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Schneider  LS;  Ismail  MS;  Dagerman  K;  Davis  S;  Olin  J;  McManus  D;  Pfeiffer  E;  Ryan  JM;  Sultzer  DL;  Tariot  PN:  Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE): Alzheimer's disease trial.  Schizophr Bull 2003; 29: 57—72
[PubMed]
 
Schneider  LS;  Tariot  PN;  Dagerman  KS;  Davis  SM;  Hsiao  JK;  Ismail  MS;  Lebowitz  BD;  Lyketsos  CG;  Ryan  JM;  Stroup  TS;  Sultzer  DL;  Weintraub  D;  Lieberman  JA; CATIE-AD Study Group:  Effectiveness of atypical antipsychotic drugs in patients with Alzheimer's disease.  N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 1525—1538
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
McKhann  G;  Drachman  D;  Folstein  M;  Katzman  R;  Price  D;  Stadlan  EM:  Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of the Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer's Disease. Neurology 1984; 34: 939—944
[PubMed]
 
Overall  JE;  Gorham  DR:  The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS): recent developments in ascertainment and scaling.  Psychopharmacol Bull 1988; 24: 97—99
 
Cummings  JL;  Mega  M;  Gray  K;  Rosenberg-Thompson  S;  Carusi  DA;  Gornbein  J:  The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia.  Neurology 1994; 44: 2308—2314
[PubMed]
 
Rosen  WG;  Mohs  RC;  Davis  KL:  A new rating scale for Alzheimer's disease.  Am J Psychiatry 1984; 141: 1356—1364
[PubMed]
 
Mohs  RC;  Knopman  D;  Petersen  RC;  Ferris  SH;  Ernesto  C;  Grundman  M;  Sano  M;  Bieliauskas  L;  Geldmacher  D;  Clark  C;  Thal  LJ:  Development of cognitive instruments for use in clinical trials of antidementia drugs: additions to the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale that broaden its scope (Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study).  Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 1997; 11(suppl 2):S13—S21
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Benton  AL:  Development of a multilingual aphasia battery: progress and problems.  J Neurol Sci 1969; 9: 39—48
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Doody  RS;  Vacca  JL;  Massman  PJ;  Liao  TY:  The influence of handedness on the clinical presentation and neuropsychology of Alzheimer disease.  Arch Neurol 1999; 56: 1133—1137
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Amieva  H;  Lafont  S;  Auriacombe  S;  Rainville  C;  Orgogozo  JM;  Dartigues  JF;  Fabrigoule  C:  Analysis of error types in the Trail Making Test evidences an inhibitory deficit in dementia of the Alzheimer type.  J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 1998; 20: 280—285
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Keefe  RS;  Roitman  SE;  Harvey  PD;  Blum  CS;  DuPre  RL;  Prieto  DM;  Davidson  M;  Davis  KL:  A pen-and-paper human analogue of a monkey prefrontal cortex activation task: spatial working memory in patients with schizophrenia.  Schizophr Res 1995; 17: 25—33
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Beller  SA;  Overall  JE:  The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) in geropsychiatric research, II: representative profile patterns.  J Gerontol 1984; 39: 194—200
[PubMed]
 
Birks  J:  Cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 1: CD005593
[PubMed]
 
Thomas  RG;  Berg  JD;  Sano  M;  Thal  L:  Analysis of longitudinal data in an Alzheimer's disease clinical trial.  Stat Med 2000; 19: 1433—1440
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Keefe  RS;  Bilder  RM;  Davis  SM;  Harvey  PD;  Palmer  BW;  Gold  JM;  Meltzer  HY;  Green  MF;  Capuano  G;  Stroup  TS;  McEvoy  JP;  Swartz  MS;  Rosenheck  RA;  Perkins  DO;  Davis  CE;  Hsiao  JK;  Lieberman  JACATIE Investigators, Neurocognitive Working Group:  Neurocognitive effects of antipsychotic medications in patients with chronic schizophrenia in the CATIE Trial.  Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64: 633—647
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Rocca  P;  Marino  F;  Montemagni  C;  Perrone  D;  Bogetto  F:  Risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease: preliminary findings from a naturalistic, retrospective study.  Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2007; 61: 622—629
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Sultzer  DL;  Davis  SM;  Tariot  PN;  Dagerman  KS;  Lebowitz  BD;  Lyketsos  CG;  Rosenheck  RA;  Hsiao  JK;  Lieberman  JA;  Schneider  LSCATIE-AD Study Group:  Clinical symptom responses to atypical antipsychotic medications in Alzheimer's disease: phase 1 outcomes from the CATIE-AD effectiveness trial.  Am J Psychiatry 2008; 165: 844—854
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
References Container

FIGURE 1. 

Average Cognitive Summary Score and z Scores for Three Cognitive Tests, by Study Period, for the Full Study Populationa

a MMSE=Mini-Mental State Examination; ADAS-Cog=cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale. A one-unit change in z scores for MMSE, BPRS cognitive factor, and ADAS-Cog represents a decline of one SD of mean baseline score for the variable, with BPRS cognitive factor and ADAS-Cog z scores being further adjusted so that declines in the z score indicate declines in cognitive function. The cognitive summary score is the normalized average of normalized cognitive scores (Table 2).

FIGURE 2. 

Average Scores on Three Cognitive Measures, by Study Period and by Antipsychotic Treatment Versus Placeboa

a MMSE=Mini-Mental State Examination; ADAS-Cog=cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale. Decreases in MMSE and cognitive summary scores and increases in ADAS-Cog score are indicative of cognitive decline.

Anchor for Jump
TABLE 1.

Baseline Demographic, Cognitive, and Functional Characteristics of Patients With Alzheimer's Disease and Psychosis or Agitated/Aggressive Behavior in a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study of Atypical Antipsychotics

Table Footer Note

a The working memory deficit is the difference between the 10-second-delay score and no-delay scores. Working memory deficit scores were considered to be missing in patients with no-delay scores above 4.0.

Table Footer Note

b The cognitive summary is the normalized average of the sign-adjusted, normalized, baseline z scores for each of the 11 components of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale cognitive subscale, as well as the concentration/distractibility, number cancellation, and executive function (mazes) subscales; category instances; the mean of the scores for the preferred and the nonpreferred hand on the finger tapping test; the Trail Making Test, Part A; and the working memory deficit.

Anchor for Jump
TABLE 2.

Weekly Rates of Change in Cognitive Function in Patients With Alzheimer's Disease and Psychosis or Agitated/Aggressive Behavior in a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study of Atypical Antipsychotics and by Treatment Group

Table Footer Note

a Direction in which a change in score indicates improved function.

Table Footer Note

b Mixed-effects regression model β in time in weeks (i.e., the weekly change in cognitive variables), adjusted for age, gender, education, and pooled study site.

Table Footer Note

c Adjusted for age, gender, education, and pooled study site.

Table Footer Note

d Mean difference from placebo in change per week among patients who had been on the same medication or placebo for at least 2 weeks at time of assessment. The numbers of patients on the same treatment for at least 2 weeks at the 12-week, 24-week, and 36-week assessments, respectively, were as follows: placebo: 48, 27, 25; olanzapine: 58, 41, 42; quetiapine: 64, 55, 44; risperidone: 60, 51, 35.

Table Footer Note

e Mixed-effects regression model β in time in weeks, compared with placebo (i.e., by atypical antipsychotic, the weekly change in cognitive variables in excess of that observed in placebo patients), adjusted for age, gender, education, and pooled study site.

Table Footer Note

f Adjusted for age, gender, education, and pooled study site.

Table Footer Note

g The cognitive summary was the normalized average of the sign-adjusted, normalized, baseline z scores for each of the 11 components of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale cognitive subscale, as well as the concentration/distractibility, number cancellation, and executive function (mazes) subscales; tests of category instances; the mean of the scores for the preferred and the nonpreferred hand on the finger tapping test; the Trail Making Test, Part A; and the working memory deficit.

Anchor for Jump
TABLE 3.

Changes in Cognitive Function Over 36 Weeks Among Patients With Alzheimer's Disease and Psychosis or Agitated/Aggressive Behavior Receiving Olanzapine, Quetiapine, or Risperidone Compared With Placeboa

Table Footer Note

a Only patients who had been receiving an atypical antipsychotic or placebo for 2 weeks at time of assessment were included.

Table Footer Note

b Mixed-effects regression model, adjusted for age, gender, education, and pooled study site. The model change is the predicted change in cognitive function test score from baseline to 36 weeks for patients who had been on an atypical antipsychotic or on placebo for at least 2 weeks at time of assessment, adjusted for age, gender, education, and pooled study site. Confidence intervals are for the predicted change in cognitive function.

Table Footer Note

c Direction in which a change in score indicates improved function.

Table Footer Note

d Significance level for atypical antipsychotic change rate compared with placebo, adjusted for age, gender, education, and pooled study site.

+

References

Lyketsos  CG;  Steinberg  M;  Tschanz  JT;  Norton  MC;  Steffens  DC;  Breitner  JCS:  Mental and behavioral disturbances in dementia: findings from the Cache County Study on Memory in Aging.  Am J Psychiatry 2000; 157: 708—714
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Ropacki  SA;  Jeste  DV:  Epidemiology of and risk factors for psychosis of Alzheimer's disease: a review of 55 studies published from 1990 to 2003.  Am J Psychiatry 2005; 162: 2022—2030
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Lopez  OL;  Becker  JT;  Sweet  RA;  Klunk  W;  Kaufer  DI;  Saxton  J;  Habeych  M;  DeKosky  ST:  Psychiatric symptoms vary with the severity of dementia in probable Alzheimer's disease.  J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2003; 15: 346—353
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Craig  D;  Mirakhur  A;  Hart  DJ;  McIlroy  SP;  Passmore  AP:  A cross sectional study of neuropsychiatric symptoms in 435 patients with Alzheimer's disease.  Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2005; 13: 460—468
[PubMed]
 
Schulz  R;  O'Brien  AT;  Bookwala  J;  Fleissner  K:  Psychiatric and physical morbidity effects of dementia caregiving: prevalence, correlates, and causes.  Gerontologist 1995; 35: 771—791
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Magni  E;  Binetti  G;  Bianchetti  A;  Trabucchi  M:  Risk of mortality and institutionalization in demented patients with delusions.  J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 1996; 9: 123—126
[PubMed]
 
Stern  Y;  Tang  MX;  Albert  MS;  Brandt  J;  Jacobs  DM;  Bell  K;  Marder  K;  Sano  M;  Devanand  D;  Albert  SM;  Bylsma  F;  Tsai  WY:  Predicting time to nursing home care and death in individuals with Alzheimer disease.  JAMA 1997; 227: 806—812
[CrossRef]
 
Schneider  LS;  Dagerman  K;  Insel  PS:  Efficacy and adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics for dementia: meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials.  Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2006; 14: 191—210
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Keefe  RS;  Silva  SG;  Perkins  DO;  Lieberman  JA:  The effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs on neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia: a review and meta-analysis.  Schizophr Bull 1999; 25: 201—222
[PubMed]
 
Woodward  ND;  Purdon  SE;  Meltzer  HY;  Zald  DH:  A meta-analysis of neuropsychological change to clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone in schizophrenia.  Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2005; 8: 457—472
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Harvey  PD;  Keefe  RSE:  Studies of cognitive change in patients with schizophrenia following novel antipsychotic treatment.  Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 176—184
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Goldberg  TE;  Goldman  RS;  Burdick  KE;  Malhotra  AK;  Lencz  T;  Patel  RC;  Woerner  MG;  Schooler  NR;  Kane  JM;  Robinson  DG:  Cognitive improvement after treatment with second-generation antipsychotic medications in first-episode schizophrenia: is it a practice effect? Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64: 1115—1122
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Ballard  C;  Margallo-Lana  M;  Juszczak  E;  Douglas  S;  Swann  A;  Thomas  A;  O'Brien  J;  Everratt  A;  Sadler  S;  Maddison  C;  Lee  L;  Bannister  C;  Elvish  R;  Jacoby  R:  Quetiapine and rivastigmine and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial.  BMJ 2005; 330: 874—877
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Folstein  MF;  Folstein  SE;  McHugh  PR:  "Mini-Mental State": a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician.  J Psychiatr Res 1975; 12: 189—198
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Kennedy  J;  Deberdt  W;  Siegal  A;  Micca  J;  Degenhardt  E;  Ahl  J;  Meyers  A;  Kaiser  C;  Baker  RW:  Olanzapine does not enhance cognition in non-agitated and non-psychotic patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia.  Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2005; 20: 1020—1027
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Schneider  LS;  Ismail  MS;  Dagerman  K;  Davis  S;  Olin  J;  McManus  D;  Pfeiffer  E;  Ryan  JM;  Sultzer  DL;  Tariot  PN:  Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE): Alzheimer's disease trial.  Schizophr Bull 2003; 29: 57—72
[PubMed]
 
Schneider  LS;  Tariot  PN;  Dagerman  KS;  Davis  SM;  Hsiao  JK;  Ismail  MS;  Lebowitz  BD;  Lyketsos  CG;  Ryan  JM;  Stroup  TS;  Sultzer  DL;  Weintraub  D;  Lieberman  JA; CATIE-AD Study Group:  Effectiveness of atypical antipsychotic drugs in patients with Alzheimer's disease.  N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 1525—1538
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
McKhann  G;  Drachman  D;  Folstein  M;  Katzman  R;  Price  D;  Stadlan  EM:  Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of the Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer's Disease. Neurology 1984; 34: 939—944
[PubMed]
 
Overall  JE;  Gorham  DR:  The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS): recent developments in ascertainment and scaling.  Psychopharmacol Bull 1988; 24: 97—99
 
Cummings  JL;  Mega  M;  Gray  K;  Rosenberg-Thompson  S;  Carusi  DA;  Gornbein  J:  The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia.  Neurology 1994; 44: 2308—2314
[PubMed]
 
Rosen  WG;  Mohs  RC;  Davis  KL:  A new rating scale for Alzheimer's disease.  Am J Psychiatry 1984; 141: 1356—1364
[PubMed]
 
Mohs  RC;  Knopman  D;  Petersen  RC;  Ferris  SH;  Ernesto  C;  Grundman  M;  Sano  M;  Bieliauskas  L;  Geldmacher  D;  Clark  C;  Thal  LJ:  Development of cognitive instruments for use in clinical trials of antidementia drugs: additions to the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale that broaden its scope (Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study).  Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 1997; 11(suppl 2):S13—S21
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Benton  AL:  Development of a multilingual aphasia battery: progress and problems.  J Neurol Sci 1969; 9: 39—48
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Doody  RS;  Vacca  JL;  Massman  PJ;  Liao  TY:  The influence of handedness on the clinical presentation and neuropsychology of Alzheimer disease.  Arch Neurol 1999; 56: 1133—1137
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Amieva  H;  Lafont  S;  Auriacombe  S;  Rainville  C;  Orgogozo  JM;  Dartigues  JF;  Fabrigoule  C:  Analysis of error types in the Trail Making Test evidences an inhibitory deficit in dementia of the Alzheimer type.  J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 1998; 20: 280—285
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Keefe  RS;  Roitman  SE;  Harvey  PD;  Blum  CS;  DuPre  RL;  Prieto  DM;  Davidson  M;  Davis  KL:  A pen-and-paper human analogue of a monkey prefrontal cortex activation task: spatial working memory in patients with schizophrenia.  Schizophr Res 1995; 17: 25—33
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Beller  SA;  Overall  JE:  The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) in geropsychiatric research, II: representative profile patterns.  J Gerontol 1984; 39: 194—200
[PubMed]
 
Birks  J:  Cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 1: CD005593
[PubMed]
 
Thomas  RG;  Berg  JD;  Sano  M;  Thal  L:  Analysis of longitudinal data in an Alzheimer's disease clinical trial.  Stat Med 2000; 19: 1433—1440
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Keefe  RS;  Bilder  RM;  Davis  SM;  Harvey  PD;  Palmer  BW;  Gold  JM;  Meltzer  HY;  Green  MF;  Capuano  G;  Stroup  TS;  McEvoy  JP;  Swartz  MS;  Rosenheck  RA;  Perkins  DO;  Davis  CE;  Hsiao  JK;  Lieberman  JACATIE Investigators, Neurocognitive Working Group:  Neurocognitive effects of antipsychotic medications in patients with chronic schizophrenia in the CATIE Trial.  Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64: 633—647
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Rocca  P;  Marino  F;  Montemagni  C;  Perrone  D;  Bogetto  F:  Risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease: preliminary findings from a naturalistic, retrospective study.  Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2007; 61: 622—629
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Sultzer  DL;  Davis  SM;  Tariot  PN;  Dagerman  KS;  Lebowitz  BD;  Lyketsos  CG;  Rosenheck  RA;  Hsiao  JK;  Lieberman  JA;  Schneider  LSCATIE-AD Study Group:  Clinical symptom responses to atypical antipsychotic medications in Alzheimer's disease: phase 1 outcomes from the CATIE-AD effectiveness trial.  Am J Psychiatry 2008; 165: 844—854
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
References Container
+
+

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