Instead, we think it is more likely that the discrepant findings are attributable to the nature of the sample rather than its size. Our study (1) used a clinical sample of women with borderline personality disorder participating in an outpatient treatment study who were selected on the basis of their high degree of suicidality. The study inclusion criteria required that participants exhibit both recent (past 8 weeks) and chronic (at least two episodes in the past 5 years) intentional self-injury (suicide attempts and/or nonsuicidal self-injury), as well as at least one suicide attempt in the past year. In contrast, the epidemiologic studies used community samples that were selected to be representative of the U.S. adult population (2—4). Given that all of the borderline personality disorder patients in our study had attempted suicide in the past year, our ability to find differences between those with and without PTSD on the frequency, intent, and lethality of past-year suicide attempts was limited by the low degree of variability among participants. In contrast, the rate of lifetime suicide attempt was notably lower in the community samples (3%—4% of the total samples and 18%—32% of the borderline and PTSD subgroups; [2—4]), thereby providing greater variability and ability to detect between-group differences. Thus, our findings suggest that among suicidal borderline personality disorder patients, the addition of PTSD does not further increase the already high frequency of suicide attempts. The epidemiologic studies, on the other hand, suggest that PTSD does increase the frequency of suicide attempts among borderline personality disorder individu-als in the community who exhibit lower rates of baseline suicidality. Rather than being discrepant findings, we think these studies are simply assessing this issue in very different borderline personality disorder populations.