Furthermore, this effect of disulfiram on the cortico-mesolimbic dopamine circuit would be to increase, not decrease, reinforcement and abuse liability. In essence, the proposal would be for disulfiram to "substitute" for the effects of alcohol. Hence, both of its proposed mechanisms of action—on alcohol metabolism and on dopamine metabolism—would tend to argue against an effect as an anticraving agent. Furthermore, to my knowledge, there is no compelling body of research that would support the use of disulfiram as a substitute for alcohol. Indeed, there is no strong clinical evidence that a substitution agent would be an important treatment for alcohol dependence. Instead, the most important research studies have focused on developing medications that are neuromodulators of dopamine levels in the cortico-mesolimbic dopamine system, thereby decreasing the drive, urge, or propensity to use alcohol. These so-called anticraving agents are the hallmarks of promising new treatments for alcohol dependence.