0
Get Alert
Please Wait... Processing your request... Please Wait.
You must sign in to sign-up for alerts.

Please confirm that your email address is correct, so you can successfully receive this alert.

1
Articles   |    
The Effects of Hypertension and Body Mass Index on Cognition in Schizophrenia
Joseph I. Friedman, M.D.; Sylvan Wallenstein, Ph.D.; Erin Moshier, M.S.; Michael Parrella, Ph.D.; Leonard White, Ph.D.; Stephanie Bowler, R.N.; Stephanie Gottlieb; Philip D. Harvey, Ph.D.; Thomas G. McGinn, M.D.; Lauren Flanagan, Ph.D.; Kenneth L. Davis, M.D.
Am J Psychiatry 2010;167:1232-1239. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.09091328
View Author and Article Information
From the Departments of Psychiatry, Medicine, and Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York; the Clinical Neuroscience Center, Pilgrim Psychiatric Center, West Brentwood, New York; and the Department of Psychiatry, Emory School of Medicine, Atlanta.

Received Sept. 19, 2009; revision received March 3, 2010; accepted April 19, 2010

Dr. Harvey has served as a consultant to Abbott, Dainippon Sumitomo America, Eli Lilly, Johnson & Johnson, Merck, Sepracor, Shire Pharma, and Solvay and has received grant support from AstraZeneca. Dr. Davis's wife receives royalty income from Janssen Pharma and Shire Pharma from sale of a patented drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The other authors report no financial relationships with commercial interests.

Supported by grant MH063392 from the NIMH Silvio O. Conte Center for the Neuroscience of Mental Disorders (to Joseph D. Buxbaum, principal investigator, and Dr. Davis, co-principal investigator) and NIH grant M01-RR-00071 to the Mount Sinai General Clinical Research Center.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Friedman, Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Box 1230, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029; jfriedman1@rcn.com (e-mail).

Received September 19, 2009; Revised March 3, 2010; Accepted April 19, 2010.

Copyright © American Psychiatric Association

Abstract

Objective:  In recent years there has been a greater appreciation of the elevated prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the schizophrenia population and the liability some treatments have for their development. These vascular risk factors are in turn important risk factors in the development of dementia and more subtle cognitive impairments. However, their impact on the cognitive functions of patients with schizophrenia remains underexplored. The authors investigated whether vascular risk factors influence the cognitive impairments of schizophrenia and whether their effects on cognition in schizophrenia are different from those observed in nonpsychiatric comparison subjects.

Method:  The authors compared 100 patients with schizophrenia and 53 comparison subjects on cognitive test performance in 2×2 matrices composed of individual vascular risk factors and group (schizophrenia patients and comparison subjects).

Results:  Hypertension exerted a significant negative effect on immediate delayed and recognition memory in both groups. Patients with schizophrenia and hypertension were adversely affected in recognition memory, whereas comparison subjects were not. A body mass index above 25 was associated with negative effects on delayed memory in both groups, although the association fell short of statistical significance.

Conclusions:  Given that patients with schizophrenia have a higher prevalence of vascular risk factors than the general population and are undertreated for them, treatment of these risk factors may significantly improve cognitive outcome in schizophrenia.

Abstract Teaser
Figures in this Article

In recent years, there has been a greater appreciation of the elevated prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the schizophrenia population and the liability some treatments have for their development. These cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity, are also important risk factors in the development of dementia (13) as well as more subtle cognitive decrements (4). However, the impact they have on the cognitive functions of patients with schizophrenia remains underexplored. This area of investigation demands attention because identification of additional causes of cognitive impairment may lead to new developments in treatments, which might be aimed at vascular factors. Indeed, the results of studies of vascular risk factors in Alzheimer's disease have spawned a number of dementia treatment trials of medications targeting vascular risk factors (5, 6). Therefore, similar treatment targets may prove worthy of investigation in schizophrenia if there is sufficient evidence linking these factors to the cognitive impairment of schizophrenia.

The baseline data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study (7) failed to show any relationship between the metabolic syndrome and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. However, neither CATIE nor other investigations have focused on the association of individual vascular risk factors and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Indeed, the CATIE requirement that participants meet at least three of the criteria to be categorized as having metabolic syndrome (7) may have resulted in the inclusion of a substantial number of individuals with only one or two vascular risk factors in the group designated as not having metabolic syndrome. This may have diluted the measured effects of these individual risk factors on cognitive performance.

We compared the association between individual vascular risk factors and cognitive performance in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia and nonpsychiatric comparison subjects. We hypothesized that patients with schizophrenia and comparison subjects with each of these vascular risk factors would demonstrate poorer cognitive performance than their counterparts who did not have these risk factors. We also made an exploratory assessment of potential interaction effects between a diagnosis of schizophrenia and the presence of these risk factors.

+

Participants

Participants in this study were recruited for projects conducted by the Conte Center for the Neuroscience of Mental Disorders at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (8). Schizophrenia patients were recruited from inpatient, outpatient, day treatment, and vocational rehabilitation services at Mount Sinai Hospital (New York), Pilgrim Psychiatric Center (West Brentwood, N.Y.), Bronx VA Medical Center (New York), Hudson Valley Veterans Affairs Medical Center (Montrose, N.Y.), and Queens Hospital Center (New York). The institutional review board of each institution approved the study. Comparison subjects were recruited from the Mount Sinai Hospital Internal Medicine Associates clinic, the surrounding Manhattan area, and Long Island communities surrounding Pilgrim Psychiatric Center. Comparison subjects underwent the same diagnostic, neuropsychological, and laboratory testing procedures as the schizophrenia patients. Signed informed consent was obtained from each participant in accordance with each institution's institutional review board policies. Schizophrenia patients were diagnosed on the basis of the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (9). Comparison subjects had no DSM-IV axis I disorders, as determined by expert consensus of the data obtained from the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History. Schizophrenia patients and comparison subjects were excluded from the analyses if they had a positive urine test for drugs of abuse, a medical diagnosis that might include significant brain involvement (e.g., HIV infection, an episode of anoxia), a history of a neurologic disorder that might produce cognitive impairment (e.g., head injury, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, a seizure disorder), an unstable medical condition (e.g., poorly controlled diabetes or hypertension, symptomatic coronary artery disease), or a reading grade equivalent of grade 8 or less based on the Wide-Range Achievement Test, 3rd ed. (10, 11).

All participants completed the tests in a fixed order. All tests were administered by raters who were trained and certified as reliable and were blind to participants' medical status at the time of assessment.

+

Assessments

The severity of psychotic and negative symptoms was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) (12). The dependent variables in this study were the total scores on the positive, negative, and general psychopathology subscales of the PANSS.

+

Neuropsychological test battery.

We used the standard neuropsychological test battery compiled for all clinical studies in schizophrenia conducted by the Conte Center at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (8). These tests, described below, were chosen to assess the wide range of cognitive domains known to be impaired in schizophrenia.

The Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (13) was used to assess verbal learning and memory. This test utilizes a word list paradigm in which five separate verbal presentations of a 15-word list are given, each trial followed by a free recall test. Then an interference list of 15 words is presented followed by a free recall of the first list. After a delay of 20 minutes, participants are asked to provide free recall of the first list. They are then asked to identify the 15 words presented in the first list from a list of 50 words. The dependent variables included the total number of words recalled over trials 1—5 (immediate memory), the number of words recalled after the 20-minute delay (delayed recall), and a recognition memory score ([correct recognitions + correct rejections]/50).

The Trail Making Test, Parts A and B (14), were employed as tests of visuomotor speed and the ability to alternate between sets. To perform Part A, subjects draw lines to connect circles numbered 1—25 in ascending order. In Part B, the circles include both numbers (ranging from 1 to 13) and letters (from A to L); as in Part A, the participant draws lines to connect the circles in an ascending pattern, but with the added task of alternating between the numbers and letters (i.e., 1-A-2-B-3-C, etc.). The dependent measure for each task is the time (in seconds) taken to complete each of the trails, including the time used correcting the participants.

The category verbal fluency test (animals) (15) was administered to measure verbal productivity and the intactness of the lexical system. Participants were asked to produce the names of as many different animals as they could in 1 minute. The number of original words that are considered animals produced in that interval is the dependent measure.

The letter-number sequencing test, a subtest of the WAIS, 3rd ed. (WAIS-III) (16), was used as a measure of working memory performance. In each trial, a combination of numbers and letters is read to the participant (ranging from two to eight items), after which the participant is asked to recall the numbers first, in order, starting with the lowest number, and then the letters in alphabetical order. There are three trials at each level of difficulty, with two items, three items, four items, and so on.

The digit span distraction test (17) is a measure of attentional capacity and distractibility. The task has seven trials in both distraction and non-distraction conditions. The non-distraction trials include six target digits per trial, presented in a female voice at a rate of one item every 2 seconds. The distraction condition has seven five-digit trials with the target digits presented at the same rate in a female voice. In the distraction subtask, the 2-second interdigit interval is filled with a male voice saying four irrelevant digits. Each trial is scored for the number of items recalled correctly in order. Dependent measures were scores for the non-distraction and distraction condition.

+

Medical assessments.

Medical assessments were performed at the General Clinical Research Center at Mount Sinai Hospital. A research nurse blind to the cognitive performance data compiled an inventory of each participant's medical history and current medications and performed a review of systems. A physical examination was performed, along with an ECG and laboratory studies (comprehensive metabolic panel and lipid profile; CBC; thyroid-stimulating hormone, B12, and folate levels; urinalysis; and urine toxicology screen). Medical diagnoses were grouped and coded according to ICD-9-CM.

+

Analyses

From the list of medical diagnoses, two cardiovascular risk factors were the subject of this investigation: hypertension and elevated body mass index (BMI). Because there were insufficient numbers of participants with diabetes and dyslipidemia in both the schizophrenia and comparison groups (Table 1), these risk factors were excluded from the analyses.

 
Anchor for Jump
TABLE 1.

Comparison of Clinical and Demographic Characteristics of Patients With Schizophrenia and Comparison Subjects Age 29 Years and Older

The designation of hypertension was based on a review of the medical history and, when the history was unclear, discussion with the participant's primary physician. All participants with hypertension included in the study were receiving antihypertensive treatment at the time of assessment, and their blood pressure was under control. Categorization of participants was not based on blood pressure reading at the time of assessment; participants with newly diagnosed and untreated hypertension or poorly controlled established hypertension were excluded from the study and referred for treatment. For the purposes of the analyses, participants were dichotomized into those with and those without hypertension.

We calculated BMI as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. A BMI ≥25 was categorized as elevated, consistent with the International Classification of Adult Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity. For the purposes of the analyses, participants were dichotomized into those with a normal BMI (<25) and those with an elevated BMI (≥25).

Scores from the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test, the verbal fluency for animals test, and the letter-number sequencing test appeared normally distributed and were analyzed without transformation. The time to complete the Trail Making Tests were skewed and were analyzed after taking square-root transformations. The digit span distraction test results were also skewed, and the transformation most nearly normal appeared to be the square root of the number of incorrect answers.

For each item in the neuropsychological test battery, the individual vascular risk factors were cross-tabulated by group (schizophrenia patients and comparison subjects). We analyzed the resulting data using general linear models. We entered age, gender, education, and ethnicity in all models. In the main effects model, we also included the vascular risk factor(s) of interest (the presence of hypertension or elevated BMI) and the presence or absence of a schizophrenia diagnosis. The ratio of the estimated effect of each variable in Tables 2 and 3 divided by the square root of the mean squared error and a function of the sample sizes had a t distribution, and from this value, a p value was computed. Holm's method was used to adjust the p values for multiple comparisons. For the smallest p value, the adjustment is the same as the Bonferroni correction for the nine outcome measures being analyzed, resulting in a corrected significance level set to p=0.0056. If the smallest p value exceeds 0.0056, the process stops, but if it is smaller, the next smallest p value is multiplied by 8. The process continues in a similar manner if that p value is significant, with the next smallest multiplied by 7. Within-group comparisons were performed using a contrast statement in the linear model, which basically forms a t statistic, which is the ratio of the observed differences within the group, divided by the standard error of that difference. In the interaction model, we also included the interaction between the vascular risk factor and the schizophrenia status. Adjusted means for the neuropsychological variables were calculated from the main effects model for each of the four cells formed by schizophrenia status and vascular factor, where adjustment is for age, gender, education, and ethnicity.

Analyzable cognitive and medical data were available for 247 participants. However, given the complete absence of hypertension in participants younger than age 29, these participants were excluded from the analyses, leaving 153 participants age 29 or older (100 schizophrenia patients and 53 comparison subjects) for the analyses. Demographic and clinical details are summarized in Table 1. Schizophrenia patients demonstrated, on average, moderate symptom severity, as indicated by a mean PANSS positive score of 14.50 (SD=4.63) and a mean PANSS negative score of 16.54 (SD=6.04). Ten percent of the schizophrenia patients were receiving treatment with first-generation antipsychotics and 87% with second-generation antipsychotics; 3% were medication free at the time of assessment.

 
Anchor for Jump
TABLE 2.

Neuropsychological Test Scores of Patients With Schizophrenia and Comparison Subjects by Group and Hypertension Diagnosisa

Table Footer Note

a Scores are adjusted for age, gender, education, and ethnicity. All participants analyzed were age 29 or older. p values for the main effects models were calculated from the ratio of the estimated effect of each variable divided by the square root of the mean squared error from the regression and are a function of the sample size. The effect size was Cohen's d, calculated as the difference between two adjusted means divided by the square root of the mean squared error from the regression.

Table Footer Note

b Statistically significant with the Holm correction.

 
Anchor for Jump
TABLE 3.

Neuropsychological Test Scores for Patients With Schizophrenia and Comparison Subjects by Group and Body Mass Index (BMI) Cutoff of 25a

Table Footer Note

a Scores are adjusted for age, gender, education, and ethnicity. All participants analyzed were age 29 or older. p values for the main effects models were calculated from the ratio of the estimated effect of each variable divided by the square root of the mean squared error from the regression and are a function of the sample size. The effect size was Cohen's d, calculated as the difference between two adjusted means divided by the square root of the mean squared error from the regression.

Table Footer Note

b Statistically significant with the Holm correction.

+

Schizophrenia Effects

After adjustment for the effects of age, gender, education, and ethnicity, a diagnosis of schizophrenia exerted significant negative effects on all cognitive measures (all p values significant after Holm correction) (Tables 2 and 3), with schizophrenia patients performing worse than comparison subjects.

+

Hypertension Effects

After adjustment for the effects of age, gender, education, and ethnicity, and utilizing the Holm correction, hypertension exerted a significant negative effect on immediate, delayed, and recognition memory (Table 2). Both the hypertensive schizophrenia patients and the hypertensive comparison subjects performed more poorly than their nonhypertensive counterparts (Figure 1, Table 2). Within-group comparisons showed significant negative hyper-tension effects on delayed memory in both the schizophrenia (p=0.038) and comparison groups (p<0.0001) and on recognition memory in the schizophrenia group (p=0.008) but not in the comparison group (Figure 1). For immediate memory, within-group differences were significant for the comparison group (p=0.01) but not for the schizophrenia group. Hypertension exerted no significant effects on any of the other cognitive measures. There were no significant interaction effects between a schizophrenia diagnosis and hypertension on any of the cognitive measures, even without the Holm correction.

 
Anchor for JumpAnchor for Jump
FIGURE 1.

Immediate Memory, Delayed Recall, and Recognition Memory Performance for Patients With Schizophrenia and Comparison Subjects With and Without Hypertensiona

aMemory performance measures are from the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test. Scores are adjusted for age, gender, education, and ethnicity. All participants analyzed were age 29 or older. Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals.

+

BMI Effects

After adjustment for the effects of age, gender, education, and ethnicity, and utilizing the Holm correction, a BMI ≥25 had a negative effect on delayed memory, although it did not reach statistical significance (p=0.007 before adjustment, p=0.063 with adjustment) (Table 3, Figure 2). A BMI ≥25 had no significant effect on any other cognitive measures (Table 3). No interaction effects were observed between a schizophrenia diagnosis and BMI on any cognitive measures (Table 3). When the effects of hypertension were entered into the model, the effects of elevated BMI on delayed memory were weakened.

 
Anchor for JumpAnchor for Jump
FIGURE 2.

Immediate Memory, Delayed Recall, and Recognition Memory Performance for Patients With Schizophrenia and Comparison Subjects With and Without a BMI ≥25a

aMemory performance measures are from the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test. Scores are adjusted for age, gender, education, and ethnicity. All participants analyzed were age 29 or older. Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals.

Hypertension was significantly associated with poorer verbal memory performance in patients with schizophrenia and in nonpsychiatric comparison subjects age 29 and older. Moreover, an elevated BMI was more modestly associated with poorer verbal memory performance in schizophrenia patients and in comparison subjects. Although an association between hypertension and elevated BMI and poorer cognitive test performance in persons without schizophrenia has been reported (1830), our findings provide the first evidence for an association between the presence of individual vascular risk factors and more severe cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

There were no significant interaction effects between a diagnosis of schizophrenia and hypertension or an elevated BMI, although the results do indicate larger negative effect sizes for these vascular risk factors in the comparison group (Tables 2 and 3). However, a diagnosis of schizophrenia alone significantly impaired cognitive performance, and hypertension and an elevated BMI exerted additional negative influences on cognitive performance in schizophrenia patients.

These findings are in agreement with other studies of nonpsychiatric populations that have shown associations between hypertension and poorer cognitive performance (references 1822, for example). Interestingly, the effects of hypertension in our study subjects, all of whom were being treated with antihypertensive medications, were restricted to verbal memory. Other studies have similarly demonstrated a restricted pattern of verbal memory impairments in hypertensive patients receiving treatment (23). In contrast, untreated hypertensive patients show a more widespread pattern of neuropsychological impairments, including in executive functioning and motor speed, in addition to verbal memory impairments (23, 24). These findings suggest that there may be transient abnormalities related to untreated hypertension resulting in cognitive impairments that are not present once treatment is started. Should this be the case in schizophrenia patients, it would have major implications for treatment focus, especially given the high rate of untreated hypertension in this population (23). Alternatively, the deleterious effects of hypertension may be restricted to the cognitive domain of verbal memory in schizophrenia patients, regardless of antihypertensive treatment. However, even such a restricted pattern of negative effects on cognitive performance in schizophrenia patients would have significant implications for many aspects of functioning in everyday life. Indeed, evidence suggests that verbal memory is a key predictor of everyday life functioning in schizophrenia (3134).

Although a BMI >30 has been traditionally accepted as a risk for cognitive impairment, a threshold of only 25 was sufficient to negatively influence cognitive function in the participants in our study, albeit more modestly than in investigations of nonpsychiatric subjects (2630). Although not often reported, others have noted a BMI threshold of 25 as a risk for cognitive impairment in nonpsychiatric subjects (35).

Hypertension and obesity are well-established risk factors for atherosclerosis (see reference 36 for a review), which raises the possibility that atherosclerosis is the final common pathway through which these risk factors impair cognition. Supporting this possibility is the observation that dementia is correlated with atherosclerosis severity (37). However, nonvascular mechanisms for the association of hypertension and obesity with cognitive impairment have been suggested. For obesity, some have postulated direct actions of adiposity on neuronal tissue through neurochemical mediators produced by the adipocyte (38). Leptin, a protein secreted predominantly by adipocytes, regulates appetite and may play a role in learning and memory (39). In animal models, leptin facilitates learning, spatial memory, and long-term potentiation (40) and has been shown to enhance N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor function and modulate synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus (41). Interestingly, higher leptin levels have been associated with greater BMI (42), suggesting leptin resistance as a causal pathway from obesity to cognitive impairment. In support of this notion is the observation that obesity and aging are also associated with hyperleptinemia and leptin resistance (43).

For hypertension, alternative mechanisms to atherosclerosis underlying its association with cognitive impairment include oxidative stress (44) and increased activation of the renin-angiotensin system. The continuous exaggeration of the human renin-angiotensin system in transgenic mice impairs cognitive function (45). The administration of an angiotensin II type 2 receptor antagonist to these transgenic mice ameliorates this cognitive impairment and reduces blood pressure (45). In contrast, treatment with hydralazine in these mice does not reverse the cognitive impairment, although it does lower blood pressure (45). Clinical studies in humans have suggested that blockade of the renin-angiotensin system can prevent cognitive impairment associated with hypertension (46).

Our findings have important clinical implications. Patients with schizophrenia experience a much higher prevalence of vascular risk factors than does the general population (47). Although lifestyle factors contribute to this elevated prevalence (48), treatment with certain second-generation antipsychotics also increases risk, including for increased weight and hypertension (49). Compounding this problem is that patients with schizophrenia are also undertreated for these vascular risk factors relative to the general population. For example, baseline data from the CATIE study showed that rates of nontreatment for schizophrenia patients ranged from 30.2% for diabetes to 62.4% for hypertension to 88.0% for dyslipidemia (25).

Because vascular risk factors represent common and modifiable factors, these findings raise the possibility that their treatment may significantly improve cognitive outcome in schizophrenia. Indeed, antihypertensive treatment in other populations has been associated with cognitive improvement in several studies (20, 22, 46). Given the high rate of undertreatment for hypertension in schizophrenia patients and the significantly greater levels of cognitive impairment in untreated compared with treated hypertensive patients (23, 24), adequate treatment of hypertension alone could have a significant impact on cognitive outcome in the general population of patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, caloric restriction in normal to overweight elderly individuals has been associated with improvement in memory over a 3-month interval (50), raising the possibility of another point of intervention for the cognitive impairments of schizophrenia.

While intriguing, the results presented here have limitations. First, we were unable to assess glucose intolerance because there were insufficient numbers of affected persons in the comparison group. Similarly for hyperlipidemia, there were insufficient numbers for analysis. Moreover, this study examined cross-sectional relationships between vascular risk factors and cognitive functions. These relationships in demented and nonpsychiatric groups are more complex and may be influenced by the timing and duration of exposure to these factors (21). Finally, the hypertensive participants in our study were all being treated for hypertension, which does not refiect the undertreatment observed in the general population of patients with schizophrenia. However, this bias would seem to have diluted the deleterious effects of hypertension on cognition as indicated by data from the comparison group. These issues indicate a need for further studies not only to replicate these results but to extend them to effects of other vascular risk factors. This may eventually lead to the study of drug targets not yet considered for schizophrenia.

Biessels  GJ;  Staekenborg  S;  Brunner  E;  Brayne  C;  Scheltens  P:  Risk of dementia in diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.  Lancet Neurol 2006; 5:64—74
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Qiu  C;  Winblad  B;  Fratiglioni  L:  The age-dependent relation of blood pressure to cognitive function and dementia.  Lancet Neurol 2005; 4:487—499
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Kivipelto  M;  Ngandu  T;  Fratiglioni  L;  Viitanen  M;  Kareholt  I;  Winblad  B;  Helkala  EL;  Tuomilehto  J;  Soininen  H;  Nissinen  A:  Obesity and vascular risk factors at midlife and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease.  Arch Neurol 2005; 62:1556—1560
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
van den Berg  E;  Kloppenborg  RP;  Kessels  RP;  Kappelle  LJ;  Biessels  GJ:  Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity: a systematic comparison of their impact on cognition.  Biochim Biophys Acta 2009; 1792:470—481
[PubMed]
 
Peters  R;  Beckett  N:  Hypertension, dementia, and antihypertensive treatment: implications for the very elderly.  Curr Hypertens Rep 2009; 11:277—282
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
McGuinness  B;  Craig  D;  Bullock  R;  Passmore  P:  Statins for the prevention of dementia.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 2:CD003160
[PubMed]
 
Meyer  JM;  Nasrallah  HA;  McEvoy  JP;  Goff  DC;  Davis  SM;  Chakos  M;  Patel  JK;  Keefe  RS;  Stroup  TS;  Lieberman  JA:  The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial: clinical comparison of subgroups with and without the metabolic syndrome.  Schizophr Res 2005; 80:9—18
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Friedman  JI;  Tang  C;  Carpenter  D;  Buchsbaum  M;  Schmeidler  J;  Flanagan  L;  Golembo  S;  Kanellopoulou  I;  Ng  J;  Hof  PR;  Harvey  PD;  Tsopelas  ND;  Stewart  D;  Davis  KL:  Diffusion tensor imaging findings in first-episode and chronic schizophrenia patients.  Am J Psychiatry 2008; 165:1024—1032
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Andreasen  NC;  Flaum  M;  Arndt  S:  The Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH): an instrument for assessing diagnosis and psychopathology.  Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992; 49:615—623
[PubMed]
[CrossRef]
 
Wilkinson  GS:  Wide-Range Achievement Test 3: Administration Manual.  Wilmington,  Del, Wide Range, 1993
 
Harvey  PD;  Moriarty  PJ;  Friedman  JI;  White  L;  Parrella  M;  Mohs  RC;  Davis  KL:  Differential preservation of cognitive functions in geriatric patients with lifelong chronic schizophrenia: less impairment in reading compared with other skill areas.  Biol Psychiatry 2000; 47:962—968
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Kay  SR:  Positive and Negative Syndromes in Schizophrenia.  New York,  Brunner/Mazel, 1991
 
Lezak  MD:  Neuropsychological Assessment, 2nd ed.  New York,  Oxford University Press, 1983
 
Reitan  RM;  Wolfson  D:  The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery: Theory and Clinical Interpretation, 2nd ed.  Tucson, Ariz,  Neuropsychology Press, 1993
 
Spreen  O;  Strauss  EA:  Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests and Norms, 2nd ed.  New York,  Oxford University Press, 1998
 
 WAIS-III and WMS-III: Technical Manual.  Psychological Corporation,  San Antonio, Tex, 1998
 
Oltmanns  TF;  Neale  JM:  Performance when distractors are present: attentional deficit or differential task difficulty? J Abnorm Psychol 1975; 84:205—209
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Starr  JM;  Whalley  LJ;  Inch  S;  Shering  PA:  Blood pressure and cognitive function in healthy old people.  J Am Geriatr Soc 1993; 41:753—756
[PubMed]
 
Seux  ML;  Thijs  L;  Forette  F;  Staessen  JA;  Birkenhäger  WH;  Bulpitt  CJ;  Girerd  X;  Jääskivi  M;  Vanhanen  H;  Kivinen  P;  Yodfat  Y;  Vänskä  O;  Antikainen  R;  Laks  T;  Webster  JR;  Hakamäki  T;  Lehtomäki  E;  Lilov  E;  Grigorov  M;  Janculova  K;  Halonen  K;  Kohonen-Jalonen  P;  Kermowa  R;  Nachev  C;  Tuomilehto  J:  Correlates of cognitive status of old patients with isolated systolic hypertension: the Syst-Eur Vascular Dementia Project.  J Hyper-tens 1998; 16:963—969
[CrossRef]
 
Kilander  L;  Nyman  H;  Boberg  M;  Hansson  L;  Lithell  H:  Hyper-tension is related to cognitive impairment: a 20-year follow-up of 999 men.  Hypertension 1998; 31:780—786
[PubMed]
 
Swan  GE;  DeCarli  C;  Miller  BL;  Reed  T;  Wolf  PA;  Jack  LM;  Carmelli  D:  Association of midlife blood pressure to late-life cognitive decline and brain morphology.  Neurology 1998; 51:986—993
[PubMed]
 
Tzourio  C;  Dufouil  C;  Ducimetière  P;  Alpérovitch  A:  Cognitive decline in individuals with high blood pressure: a longitudinal study in the elderly (EVA study group, Epidemiology of Vascular Aging).  Neurology 1999; 53:1948—1952
[PubMed]
 
Hannesdottir  K;  Nitkunan  A;  Charlton  RA;  Barrick  TR;  Mac-Gregor  GA;  Markus  HS:  Cognitive impairment and white matter damage in hypertension: a pilot study.  Acta Neurol Scand 2009; 119:261—268
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Kalra  L;  Jackson  SH;  Swift  CG:  Effect of antihypertensive treatment on psychomotor performance in the elderly.  J Hum Hypertens 1993; 7:285—290
[PubMed]
 
Nasrallah  HA;  Meyer  JM;  Goff  DC;  McEvoy  JP;  Davis  SM;  Stroup  TS;  Lieberman  JA:  Low rates of treatment for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes in schizophrenia: data from the CATIE schizophrenia trial sample at baseline.  Schizophr Res 2006; 86:15—22
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Sabia  S;  Kivimaki  M;  Shipley  MJ;  Marmot  MG;  Singh-Manoux  A:  Body mass index over the adult life course and cognition in late midlife: the Whitehall II cohort study.  Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89:601—607
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Cournot  M;  Marquié  JC;  Ansiau  D;  Martinaud  C;  Fonds  H;  Ferrières  J;  Ruidavets  JB:  Relation between body mass index and cognitive function in healthy middle-aged men and women.  Neurology 2006; 67:1208—1214
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Wolf  PA;  Beiser  A;  Elias  MF;  Au  R;  Vasan  RS;  Seshadri  S:  Relation of obesity to cognitive function: importance of central obesity and synergistic influence of concomitant hypertension: the Framingham Heart Study.  Curr Alzheimer Res 2007; 4:111—116
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Whitmer  RA;  Gunderson  EP;  Barrett-Connor  E;  Quesenberry  CP  Jr;  Yaffe  K:  Obesity in middle age and future risk of dementia: a 27 year longitudinal population based study.  BMJ 2005; 330:1360
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Elias  MF;  Elias  PK;  Sullivan  LM;  Wolf  PA;  D'Agostino  RB:  Lower cognitive function in the presence of obesity and hypertension: the Framingham Heart Study.  Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003; 27:260—268
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Puig  O;  Penadés  R;  Gastó  C;  Catalán  R;  Torres  A;  Salamero  M:  Verbal memory, negative symptomatology, and prediction of psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia.  Psychiatry Res 2008; 158:11—17
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
McClure  MM;  Bowie  CR;  Patterson  TL;  Heaton  RK;  Weaver  C;  Anderson  H;  Harvey  PD:  Correlations of functional capacity and neuropsychological performance in older patients with schizophrenia: evidence for specificity of relationships? Schizophr Res 2007; 89:330—338
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Twamley  EW;  Woods  SP;  Zurhellen  CH;  Vertinski  M;  Narvaez  JM;  Mausbach  BT;  Patterson  TL;  Jeste  DV:  Neuropsychological substrates and everyday functioning implications of prospective memory impairment in schizophrenia.  Schizophr Res 2008; 106:42—49
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Kurtz  MM;  Baker  E;  Pearlson  GD;  Astur  RS:  A virtual reality apartment as a measure of medication management skills in patients with schizophrenia: a pilot study.  Schizophr Bull 2007; 33:1162—1170
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Gunstad  J;  Paul  RH;  Cohen  RA;  Tate  DF;  Gordon  E:  Obesity is associated with memory deficits in young and middle-aged adults.  Eat Weight Disord 2006; 11:e15—e19
[PubMed]
 
Cheng  A;  Braunstein  JB;  Dennison  C;  Nass  C;  Blumenthal  RS:  Reducing global risk for cardiovascular disease: using lifestyle changes and pharmacotherapy.  Clin Cardiol 2002; 25:205—212
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Hofman  A;  Ott  A;  Breteler  MM;  Bots  ML;  Slooter  AJ;  van Harskamp  F;  van Duijn  CN;  Van Broeckhoven  C;  Grobbee  DE:  Atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E, and prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in the Rotterdam study.  Lancet 1997; 349:151—154
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Bray  GA:  Obesity is a chronic, relapsing neurochemical disease.  Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004; 28:34—38
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Funahashi  H;  Yada  T;  Suzuki  R;  Shioda  S:  Distribution, function, and properties of leptin receptors in the brain.  Int Rev Cytol 2003; 224:1—27
[PubMed]
 
Li  XL;  Aou  S;  Oomura  Y;  Hori  N;  Fukunaga  K;  Hori  T:  Impairment of long-term potentiation and spatial memory in leptin receptor-deficient rodents.  Neuroscience 2002; 113:607—615
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Shanley  LJ;  Irving  AJ;  Harvey  J:  Leptin enhances NMDA receptor function and modulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity.  J Neurosci 2001; 21(RC186):1—6
 
Holden  KF;  Lindquist  K;  Tylavsky  FA;  Rosano  C;  Harris  TB;  Yaffe  K, for the Health ABC Study:  Serum leptin level and cognition in the elderly: findings from the Health ABC Study.  Neurobiol Aging 2009; 30:1483—1489
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Chu  NF;  Stampfer  MJ;  Spiegelman  D;  Rifai  N;  Hotamisligil  GS;  Rimm  EB:  Dietary and lifestyle factors in relation to plasma leptin concentrations among normal weight and overweight men.  Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001; 25:106—114
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Zalba  G;  San Josè  G;  Moreno  M;  Fortuno  MA;  Fortuno  A;  Beaumont  F;  Diez  J:  Oxidative stress in arterial hypertension: role of NADPH oxidase.  Hypertension 2001; 38:1395—1399
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Inaba  S;  Iwai  M;  Furuno  M;  Tomono  Y;  Kanno  H;  Senba  I;  Okayama  H;  Mogi  M;  Higaki  J;  Horiuchi  M:  Continuous activation of renin-angiotensin system impairs cognitive function in renin/angiotensinogen transgenic mice.  Hypertension 2009; 53:356—362
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Tzourio  C;  Anderson  C;  Chapman  N;  Woodward  M;  Neal  B;  Mac-Mahon  S;  Chalmers  J; PROGRESS Collaborative Group:  Effects of blood pressure lowering with perindopril and indapamide therapy on dementia and cognitive decline in patients with cerebrovascular disease.  Arch Intern Med 2003; 163:1069—1075
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
McEvoy  JP;  Meyer  JM;  Goff  DC;  Nasrallah  HA;  Davis  SM;  Sullivan  L;  Meltzer  HY;  Hsiao  J;  Stroup  TS;  Lieberman  JA:  Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia: baseline results from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial and comparison with national estimates from NHANES III.  Schizophr Res 2005; 80:19—32
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Goff  DC;  Sullivan  LM;  McEvoy  JP;  Meyer  JM;  Nasrallah  HA;  Daumit  GL;  Lamberti  S;  D'Agostino  RB;  Stroup  TS;  Davis  S;  Lieberman  JA:  A comparison of ten-year cardiac risk estimates in schizophrenia patients from the CATIE study and matched controls.  Schizophr Res 2005; 80:45—53
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Newcomer  JW:  Second-generation (atypical) antipsychotics and metabolic effects: a comprehensive literature review.  CNS Drugs 2005; 19:1—95
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Witte  AV;  Fobker  M;  Gellner  R;  Knecht  S;  Flöel  A:  Caloric restriction improves memory in elderly humans.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009; 106:1255—1260
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
References Container

FIGURE 1. 

Immediate Memory, Delayed Recall, and Recognition Memory Performance for Patients With Schizophrenia and Comparison Subjects With and Without Hypertensiona

aMemory performance measures are from the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test. Scores are adjusted for age, gender, education, and ethnicity. All participants analyzed were age 29 or older. Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals.

FIGURE 2. 

Immediate Memory, Delayed Recall, and Recognition Memory Performance for Patients With Schizophrenia and Comparison Subjects With and Without a BMI ≥25a

aMemory performance measures are from the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test. Scores are adjusted for age, gender, education, and ethnicity. All participants analyzed were age 29 or older. Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals.

Anchor for Jump
TABLE 1.

Comparison of Clinical and Demographic Characteristics of Patients With Schizophrenia and Comparison Subjects Age 29 Years and Older

Anchor for Jump
TABLE 2.

Neuropsychological Test Scores of Patients With Schizophrenia and Comparison Subjects by Group and Hypertension Diagnosisa

Table Footer Note

a Scores are adjusted for age, gender, education, and ethnicity. All participants analyzed were age 29 or older. p values for the main effects models were calculated from the ratio of the estimated effect of each variable divided by the square root of the mean squared error from the regression and are a function of the sample size. The effect size was Cohen's d, calculated as the difference between two adjusted means divided by the square root of the mean squared error from the regression.

Table Footer Note

b Statistically significant with the Holm correction.

Anchor for Jump
TABLE 3.

Neuropsychological Test Scores for Patients With Schizophrenia and Comparison Subjects by Group and Body Mass Index (BMI) Cutoff of 25a

Table Footer Note

a Scores are adjusted for age, gender, education, and ethnicity. All participants analyzed were age 29 or older. p values for the main effects models were calculated from the ratio of the estimated effect of each variable divided by the square root of the mean squared error from the regression and are a function of the sample size. The effect size was Cohen's d, calculated as the difference between two adjusted means divided by the square root of the mean squared error from the regression.

Table Footer Note

b Statistically significant with the Holm correction.

+

References

Biessels  GJ;  Staekenborg  S;  Brunner  E;  Brayne  C;  Scheltens  P:  Risk of dementia in diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.  Lancet Neurol 2006; 5:64—74
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Qiu  C;  Winblad  B;  Fratiglioni  L:  The age-dependent relation of blood pressure to cognitive function and dementia.  Lancet Neurol 2005; 4:487—499
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Kivipelto  M;  Ngandu  T;  Fratiglioni  L;  Viitanen  M;  Kareholt  I;  Winblad  B;  Helkala  EL;  Tuomilehto  J;  Soininen  H;  Nissinen  A:  Obesity and vascular risk factors at midlife and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease.  Arch Neurol 2005; 62:1556—1560
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
van den Berg  E;  Kloppenborg  RP;  Kessels  RP;  Kappelle  LJ;  Biessels  GJ:  Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity: a systematic comparison of their impact on cognition.  Biochim Biophys Acta 2009; 1792:470—481
[PubMed]
 
Peters  R;  Beckett  N:  Hypertension, dementia, and antihypertensive treatment: implications for the very elderly.  Curr Hypertens Rep 2009; 11:277—282
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
McGuinness  B;  Craig  D;  Bullock  R;  Passmore  P:  Statins for the prevention of dementia.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 2:CD003160
[PubMed]
 
Meyer  JM;  Nasrallah  HA;  McEvoy  JP;  Goff  DC;  Davis  SM;  Chakos  M;  Patel  JK;  Keefe  RS;  Stroup  TS;  Lieberman  JA:  The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial: clinical comparison of subgroups with and without the metabolic syndrome.  Schizophr Res 2005; 80:9—18
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Friedman  JI;  Tang  C;  Carpenter  D;  Buchsbaum  M;  Schmeidler  J;  Flanagan  L;  Golembo  S;  Kanellopoulou  I;  Ng  J;  Hof  PR;  Harvey  PD;  Tsopelas  ND;  Stewart  D;  Davis  KL:  Diffusion tensor imaging findings in first-episode and chronic schizophrenia patients.  Am J Psychiatry 2008; 165:1024—1032
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Andreasen  NC;  Flaum  M;  Arndt  S:  The Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH): an instrument for assessing diagnosis and psychopathology.  Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992; 49:615—623
[PubMed]
[CrossRef]
 
Wilkinson  GS:  Wide-Range Achievement Test 3: Administration Manual.  Wilmington,  Del, Wide Range, 1993
 
Harvey  PD;  Moriarty  PJ;  Friedman  JI;  White  L;  Parrella  M;  Mohs  RC;  Davis  KL:  Differential preservation of cognitive functions in geriatric patients with lifelong chronic schizophrenia: less impairment in reading compared with other skill areas.  Biol Psychiatry 2000; 47:962—968
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Kay  SR:  Positive and Negative Syndromes in Schizophrenia.  New York,  Brunner/Mazel, 1991
 
Lezak  MD:  Neuropsychological Assessment, 2nd ed.  New York,  Oxford University Press, 1983
 
Reitan  RM;  Wolfson  D:  The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery: Theory and Clinical Interpretation, 2nd ed.  Tucson, Ariz,  Neuropsychology Press, 1993
 
Spreen  O;  Strauss  EA:  Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests and Norms, 2nd ed.  New York,  Oxford University Press, 1998
 
 WAIS-III and WMS-III: Technical Manual.  Psychological Corporation,  San Antonio, Tex, 1998
 
Oltmanns  TF;  Neale  JM:  Performance when distractors are present: attentional deficit or differential task difficulty? J Abnorm Psychol 1975; 84:205—209
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Starr  JM;  Whalley  LJ;  Inch  S;  Shering  PA:  Blood pressure and cognitive function in healthy old people.  J Am Geriatr Soc 1993; 41:753—756
[PubMed]
 
Seux  ML;  Thijs  L;  Forette  F;  Staessen  JA;  Birkenhäger  WH;  Bulpitt  CJ;  Girerd  X;  Jääskivi  M;  Vanhanen  H;  Kivinen  P;  Yodfat  Y;  Vänskä  O;  Antikainen  R;  Laks  T;  Webster  JR;  Hakamäki  T;  Lehtomäki  E;  Lilov  E;  Grigorov  M;  Janculova  K;  Halonen  K;  Kohonen-Jalonen  P;  Kermowa  R;  Nachev  C;  Tuomilehto  J:  Correlates of cognitive status of old patients with isolated systolic hypertension: the Syst-Eur Vascular Dementia Project.  J Hyper-tens 1998; 16:963—969
[CrossRef]
 
Kilander  L;  Nyman  H;  Boberg  M;  Hansson  L;  Lithell  H:  Hyper-tension is related to cognitive impairment: a 20-year follow-up of 999 men.  Hypertension 1998; 31:780—786
[PubMed]
 
Swan  GE;  DeCarli  C;  Miller  BL;  Reed  T;  Wolf  PA;  Jack  LM;  Carmelli  D:  Association of midlife blood pressure to late-life cognitive decline and brain morphology.  Neurology 1998; 51:986—993
[PubMed]
 
Tzourio  C;  Dufouil  C;  Ducimetière  P;  Alpérovitch  A:  Cognitive decline in individuals with high blood pressure: a longitudinal study in the elderly (EVA study group, Epidemiology of Vascular Aging).  Neurology 1999; 53:1948—1952
[PubMed]
 
Hannesdottir  K;  Nitkunan  A;  Charlton  RA;  Barrick  TR;  Mac-Gregor  GA;  Markus  HS:  Cognitive impairment and white matter damage in hypertension: a pilot study.  Acta Neurol Scand 2009; 119:261—268
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Kalra  L;  Jackson  SH;  Swift  CG:  Effect of antihypertensive treatment on psychomotor performance in the elderly.  J Hum Hypertens 1993; 7:285—290
[PubMed]
 
Nasrallah  HA;  Meyer  JM;  Goff  DC;  McEvoy  JP;  Davis  SM;  Stroup  TS;  Lieberman  JA:  Low rates of treatment for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes in schizophrenia: data from the CATIE schizophrenia trial sample at baseline.  Schizophr Res 2006; 86:15—22
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Sabia  S;  Kivimaki  M;  Shipley  MJ;  Marmot  MG;  Singh-Manoux  A:  Body mass index over the adult life course and cognition in late midlife: the Whitehall II cohort study.  Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89:601—607
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Cournot  M;  Marquié  JC;  Ansiau  D;  Martinaud  C;  Fonds  H;  Ferrières  J;  Ruidavets  JB:  Relation between body mass index and cognitive function in healthy middle-aged men and women.  Neurology 2006; 67:1208—1214
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Wolf  PA;  Beiser  A;  Elias  MF;  Au  R;  Vasan  RS;  Seshadri  S:  Relation of obesity to cognitive function: importance of central obesity and synergistic influence of concomitant hypertension: the Framingham Heart Study.  Curr Alzheimer Res 2007; 4:111—116
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Whitmer  RA;  Gunderson  EP;  Barrett-Connor  E;  Quesenberry  CP  Jr;  Yaffe  K:  Obesity in middle age and future risk of dementia: a 27 year longitudinal population based study.  BMJ 2005; 330:1360
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Elias  MF;  Elias  PK;  Sullivan  LM;  Wolf  PA;  D'Agostino  RB:  Lower cognitive function in the presence of obesity and hypertension: the Framingham Heart Study.  Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003; 27:260—268
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Puig  O;  Penadés  R;  Gastó  C;  Catalán  R;  Torres  A;  Salamero  M:  Verbal memory, negative symptomatology, and prediction of psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia.  Psychiatry Res 2008; 158:11—17
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
McClure  MM;  Bowie  CR;  Patterson  TL;  Heaton  RK;  Weaver  C;  Anderson  H;  Harvey  PD:  Correlations of functional capacity and neuropsychological performance in older patients with schizophrenia: evidence for specificity of relationships? Schizophr Res 2007; 89:330—338
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Twamley  EW;  Woods  SP;  Zurhellen  CH;  Vertinski  M;  Narvaez  JM;  Mausbach  BT;  Patterson  TL;  Jeste  DV:  Neuropsychological substrates and everyday functioning implications of prospective memory impairment in schizophrenia.  Schizophr Res 2008; 106:42—49
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Kurtz  MM;  Baker  E;  Pearlson  GD;  Astur  RS:  A virtual reality apartment as a measure of medication management skills in patients with schizophrenia: a pilot study.  Schizophr Bull 2007; 33:1162—1170
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Gunstad  J;  Paul  RH;  Cohen  RA;  Tate  DF;  Gordon  E:  Obesity is associated with memory deficits in young and middle-aged adults.  Eat Weight Disord 2006; 11:e15—e19
[PubMed]
 
Cheng  A;  Braunstein  JB;  Dennison  C;  Nass  C;  Blumenthal  RS:  Reducing global risk for cardiovascular disease: using lifestyle changes and pharmacotherapy.  Clin Cardiol 2002; 25:205—212
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Hofman  A;  Ott  A;  Breteler  MM;  Bots  ML;  Slooter  AJ;  van Harskamp  F;  van Duijn  CN;  Van Broeckhoven  C;  Grobbee  DE:  Atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E, and prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in the Rotterdam study.  Lancet 1997; 349:151—154
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Bray  GA:  Obesity is a chronic, relapsing neurochemical disease.  Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004; 28:34—38
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Funahashi  H;  Yada  T;  Suzuki  R;  Shioda  S:  Distribution, function, and properties of leptin receptors in the brain.  Int Rev Cytol 2003; 224:1—27
[PubMed]
 
Li  XL;  Aou  S;  Oomura  Y;  Hori  N;  Fukunaga  K;  Hori  T:  Impairment of long-term potentiation and spatial memory in leptin receptor-deficient rodents.  Neuroscience 2002; 113:607—615
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Shanley  LJ;  Irving  AJ;  Harvey  J:  Leptin enhances NMDA receptor function and modulates hippocampal synaptic plasticity.  J Neurosci 2001; 21(RC186):1—6
 
Holden  KF;  Lindquist  K;  Tylavsky  FA;  Rosano  C;  Harris  TB;  Yaffe  K, for the Health ABC Study:  Serum leptin level and cognition in the elderly: findings from the Health ABC Study.  Neurobiol Aging 2009; 30:1483—1489
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Chu  NF;  Stampfer  MJ;  Spiegelman  D;  Rifai  N;  Hotamisligil  GS;  Rimm  EB:  Dietary and lifestyle factors in relation to plasma leptin concentrations among normal weight and overweight men.  Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001; 25:106—114
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Zalba  G;  San Josè  G;  Moreno  M;  Fortuno  MA;  Fortuno  A;  Beaumont  F;  Diez  J:  Oxidative stress in arterial hypertension: role of NADPH oxidase.  Hypertension 2001; 38:1395—1399
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Inaba  S;  Iwai  M;  Furuno  M;  Tomono  Y;  Kanno  H;  Senba  I;  Okayama  H;  Mogi  M;  Higaki  J;  Horiuchi  M:  Continuous activation of renin-angiotensin system impairs cognitive function in renin/angiotensinogen transgenic mice.  Hypertension 2009; 53:356—362
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Tzourio  C;  Anderson  C;  Chapman  N;  Woodward  M;  Neal  B;  Mac-Mahon  S;  Chalmers  J; PROGRESS Collaborative Group:  Effects of blood pressure lowering with perindopril and indapamide therapy on dementia and cognitive decline in patients with cerebrovascular disease.  Arch Intern Med 2003; 163:1069—1075
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
McEvoy  JP;  Meyer  JM;  Goff  DC;  Nasrallah  HA;  Davis  SM;  Sullivan  L;  Meltzer  HY;  Hsiao  J;  Stroup  TS;  Lieberman  JA:  Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia: baseline results from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial and comparison with national estimates from NHANES III.  Schizophr Res 2005; 80:19—32
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Goff  DC;  Sullivan  LM;  McEvoy  JP;  Meyer  JM;  Nasrallah  HA;  Daumit  GL;  Lamberti  S;  D'Agostino  RB;  Stroup  TS;  Davis  S;  Lieberman  JA:  A comparison of ten-year cardiac risk estimates in schizophrenia patients from the CATIE study and matched controls.  Schizophr Res 2005; 80:45—53
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Newcomer  JW:  Second-generation (atypical) antipsychotics and metabolic effects: a comprehensive literature review.  CNS Drugs 2005; 19:1—95
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
Witte  AV;  Fobker  M;  Gellner  R;  Knecht  S;  Flöel  A:  Caloric restriction improves memory in elderly humans.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009; 106:1255—1260
[CrossRef] | [PubMed]
 
References Container
+
+

Self-Assessment Quiz - Expired

Did you know? You can add a subscription now to earn CME Credits!

1.
The current study demonstrates that treated hypertension negatively affects which of the following cognitive domains in patients with schizophrenia?
2.
Which of the following is not a potential pathway through which hypertension may impair cognition?
3.
The negative effects of body mass index (BMI) on delayed recall in patients with schizophrenia were observed above which of the following thresholds in the present study?
Submit a Comments
Please read the other comments before you post yours. Contributors must reveal any conflict of interest.
Comments are moderated and will appear on the site at the discertion of APA editorial staff.

* = Required Field
(if multiple authors, separate names by comma)
Example: John Doe



Web of Science® Times Cited: 22

Related Content
Articles
Books
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 20.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 20.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 20.  >
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychopharmacology, 4th Edition > Chapter 62.  >
Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th Edition > Chapter 20.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
APA Guidelines
PubMed Articles