Three studies examining both clinical measures and brain images in patients with schizophrenia reveal important information about brain dysfunction in this illness. Findings by Wexler et al. (p. 189) suggest that white matter pathology plays a primary role in the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. Patients with neuropsychological impairments typical of schizophrenia and patients with relatively intact cognition both had smaller gray matter and larger third ventricle volumes than healthy subjects. However, those with preserved cognition had normal white matter volumes. Lui et al. (p. 196) documented volume abnormalities in three brain regions of 68 first-episode, never-treated patients with schizophrenia. Compared to healthy subjects, the patients had lower gray matter volumes in the right superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and anterior cingulate gyrus. Each of these deficits was related to worse functioning and more severe psychotic symptoms. Rasetti et al. (p. 216) report that the deficient reactivity of the amygdala in schizophrenia appears to stem from the illness itself, not genetic risk. Threatening faces elicited less response in the amygdala of patients with schizophrenia than in healthy subjects, whereas patients’ unaffected siblings had normal reactivity. An editorial by Dr. Jason Tregellas on p. 134 examines these findings.